Package: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment in the article by a cosmetologist Gearus A. M.

Publication date March 23, 2019. Updated July 23, 2019.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Package - These are stable skin changes that appear after acne. These include various kinds of dish chromium (skin coloring changes), pseudoatrophy, atrophic and hypertrophic scars, etc.

The main cause of the disease is an acne with complications.

Acne (UGRI) is one of the most common diseases, the frequency of occurrence of which reaches 85%. In 15-30% of observations, it flows in a hard form, which requires compulsory treatment. In the future, 2-7% of patients acne is permitted by the formation of Packing scars. [one] It is important to understand that these scars are formed where there has been a long-term inflammatory process.

Acne and pedestal

The factors contributing to the transformation of acne in Package include:

  • the gravity degrees of acne - papoul-pustulatory and nodal-cystic forms of acne more often than others are subject to transition to secondary elements of the Package;
Heavy degrees acne
  • Inflammatory process in the skin for more than 12 months [2] - the duration of the flow of inflammation of the elements acne is directly proportional to the risk of developing secondary changes in the skin, developing to 95% of cases; [3]
  • The presence of a pedestal in a family history - usually, if someone has suffered from a pedestal in the family, the risk of developing the disease is increasing several times;
  • incorrect acne treatment;
  • Frequent squeezing acne and excessive traumatization of inflammatory elements acne.

Today, appearance plays an important role in society: beauty and attractiveness make it possible to achieve much more success both in a career and in personal life. In this regard, the scars of the Package, which sometimes urged appearance, worried people no less than active manifestations of acne. They are difficult to adjust, significantly reducing the quality of life, and require expensive prolonged treatment. [four] [five]

W. Bodermer conducted a study that revealed that 40% of patients with the pedestal was reduced by social status, and 64% of them were non-working women. [6] Such a large percentage of people suffering from acne confirms how important it is to be able to competently treat acne and not allow the development of a pedestal in the future.

Warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms Package

According to literature, 40% of patients with vulgar acne are noted by clinical symptoms of the Package. [7]

The most frequent manifestations of the Package are:

  • hyperpigmentation;
  • stagnation stains;
  • extended pores;
  • pathological scars;
  • The formation of ather (cysts of sebaceous glands) and Miliums (white acne).

Hyperpigmentation It may arise as a result of inflammation of papoul-pustulatory elements acne. As a rule, it exists quite long. The factors provoking the development of this symptom can be attributed to active solar insolation (irradiation) and mechanical impact - squeezing or scratching individual elements acne.

Hyperpigmentation

Pigmentation is characteristic of people with dark-skinned skin (III-VI phototypes) and so-called late acne (Acne Tarda), which develop in women after 35 years amid endocrine disorders.

With a light form of the flow of acne Papul-Pustulonee Acne is usually allowed without education scar . But if due to inflammation, the superficial part of the dermis is damaged, then atrophic deep traces of skin damage arise, which negatively affect the appearance of a person.

Another 40 years ago, British scientists conducted a study, which was attended by 2133 volunteers aged 18 to 70 years. This study showed that 1% of the tests had a headbread scars, 14% of these patients believed that the scars appeared disguised them appearance. [8]

Scars that are forming after getting rid of stagnation (phlegmous and conglobal) acne can be atrophic, keloid, as well as mixed with uneven edges. Atrophic scars are quite often depigmented.

Atrophic scars

In a broader sense, the concept of "pedestal" includes secondary skin changes, such as atters and miliums.

Miliums - These are horny cysts of the top layer of the skin. The people are also called the deeds, since externally they are multiple spherical thick nodes of white color with a pin head.

Milumes can be both primary and secondary. Primary Miliums Local on the skin of the eyelids or around the eyes (less often on the body). They are congenital vices for the development of epidermis, and can also occur during puberty. Secondary Miliums Across acne, chronic simple dermatitis and some bullose dermatoses, after dermabrasion and deep peeling (mechanical cleaning of the face from dead skin cells).

Miliums are serviced mainly on the face, as well as in other seborrheal zones, such as the top of the back and shoulders.

Miliums

Atheroma They are cysts of a sebaceous gland with a cavity filled with exudate. As a rule, they appear on the face and are painless non-inflammatory nodules or dense nodes. Often, comedones are found in the center of the cysts, when the hole is removed, the hole is formed. If you begin to squeeze such a cyst, a pasty whitewater-yellowish mass with a characteristic unpleasant smell will be separated from the hole.

Atheroma

Pathogenesis Package

The pathogenesis of the appearance of the symptoms of the Package depends on the depth of damage: hyperpigmentation appears as a result of skin injury at the level of the epidermis, and the scars - due to the injury of the dermis (thick layer of the skin under the epidermis). [nine]

Skin layers

The process of forming manifestations of the Package itself takes three stages:

  1. Phase inflammation . During the inflammatory response in the skin, blood vessels are first narrowed, but they are soon expanding again. As a result, the synthesis of melanin (high-molecular pigments) is activated in one form or another, which further leads to the development of hyper-or depigmentation, as well as the formation of stagnant inflammatory spots.
  2. Granulation fabric formation . At this stage, the conversion of capillaries: By the third or fifth day, fibroblasts begin to actively synthesize the new collagen. Initially, collagen III type (80%) prevails in the wound with a slight amount of type I collagen (20%). At the time of ripening of the scar, the ratio of these types of collagen changes mirrored. In parallel, keratinocytes (main cells of the epidermis) are actively sharing, gradually moving into the wound to remove fibrinoid exudate.
  3. Remodeling Matrix - Restoration of the cellular skeleton of the skin. This stage is the longest: it proceeds from a few weeks to several months and is completed by the formation of a new fabric. But what kind of fabric it turns out, depends on the cells (fibroblasts, keratinocytes, as well as sebocites), which produce a plurality of enzymes responsible for the architecture of the intercellular matrix. Such enzymes, in particular, include MMPS (Pro MMP-9) and their tissue TIMPS inhibitors. They cause a whole chain of intercellular reactions. The imbalance of the ratio of enzyme data can cause the development of atrophic or hypertrophic scars.
Atrophic and hypertrophic scars

Also on the formation of the rubrics of the Package has a huge impact provision of acne proponibacteria. Peptideoglycan is the support enzyme of the cell wall of this bacterium - enhances the decay of the extracellular matrix by the gene expression of the synthesis of Pro MMP-2. [ten] [eleven] [12]

Classification and stage of development of the Package

Depending on how the healing of the element of the acne is passed, all the scars of the Package are divided into four types:

  1. Atrophic - Healing of the rash element proceeds against the background of reduced collagen production. Such scars are below the skin level.
  2. Nimmotrophic - Healing acne occurs against the background of the normal collagen production of fibroblasts. For such scars, the location is characterized by one level with the skin.
  3. Hypertrophic - Healing comes against the background of elevated collagen synthesis. These scars protrude above the skin surface.
  4. Keloid - Dense tumor formations of the connective tissue of pink, red or blue shade with a shiny smooth surface. [thirteen] They go beyond the boundaries of the original wound and are not very like when they are again injured.
Types of Package

Atrophic scars are found in 90% of patients with Package. [14] Such scars most often eliminate cosmetologists.

The classification of atrophic scars introduced Jacob C.I. 18 years ago. [15] It is extremely important, as it helps to determine the options for the most effective treatment of manifestations of the Package.

So, depending on the form, all atrophic scars are divided into three types:

  • Slotted (ICE-PICK);
  • Square (Boxcar);
  • Rounded (rolling).
Forms of atrophic scars

Slot scars Deep, they have the form of a funnel and are similar in their structure to the English letter "V". These scars are the harder to get rid of all, as they are epithelial traps that deepen to the level of the hypoderma. The effect of treatment of slotted scarring will be minimal.

Slot scars

Rounded scars They have a diameter of 4-5 mm and are formed due to non-standard attachment of fibrous tissue between the derma and the hypoderma. Such scars for their structure resemble a chute. The depth of their occurrence usually reaches 3 mm. They are more amenable to correction, but in any case they are also difficult to treat them.

Rounded scars

Square scars Have vertical walls that do not narrow down the book. They can be located at different depths, but, as a rule, to eliminate them much easier than compatible and rounded scars.

Square scars

Complications of Package

Complications of the contract, as a rule, appear when a person seeks to get rid of stagnant stains and already emerging scars using traumatization and other types of skin impact.

Early complications include :

  • expressed echo;
  • Secondary infection (Pustulating and Impeachment);
  • exacerbation of herpetic infection;
  • Allergic dermatitis.

To late complications belong :

  • resistant erythema;
  • post-traumatic hyperpigmentation;
  • depigmentation;
  • Formation of new scars.

Expressed Otch - This is a consequence of the overall inflammatory response in the skin. It arises in response to damage and is a protective and adaptive process, during which the body restores normal physiological skin reactions.

Secondary infection It may occur when attached to the process of inflammation of pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic microflora (most often staphylococci, less often - representatives of gram-negative bacteria and extremely rarely anaerobic flora). As a result, such infection leads to the secondary appearance of the empty and impetigo (bubble-purulent rashes).

Factors predisposing to the uplutulation and impetigation:

  • The number of bacteria in the wound (100 thousand pathogens per 1 g of tissues - approximately this ratio is necessary for the development of the inflammatory process);
  • Reducing total patient immunity;
  • the presence of chronic stress and concomitant somatic diseases;
  • Durable reception of drugs and so on.

Erysipelas - The most severe form of secondary infection. The focus of infection is usually formed by the background of sensitization (acquisition of sensitivity) of the body to in-hemolytic streptococcus. The reproduction of the causative agent occurs in the lymphatic capillaries of the packet and the mesh layer of the dermis.

Erysipelas

For the faces characterized by serous or serous-hemorrhagic inflammation with signs of general intoxication of the body. She, in turn, can also complicate phlegmon (phlegmonous face phlegmon) and necrosis.

For the course of the face inflammation happens:

  • primary - exists from several days to 1-2 years after the previous process;
  • Recurrent - arises two years after the previous process and is usually characterized by other localization.

Exacerbation of herpetic infection - Frequent complication that occurs after excessively aggressive methods of exposure to the skin with a pedestal. This is especially necessary to keep in mind patients with often recurrent herpes in history: they need to undergo mandatory antiviral prophylactic therapy before treating the contract.

Extremely rare, but severe complication with the accession of herpesviruses is Herpety eczema - acute ospenoid pustojes of Juliusberg. In the absence of adequate treatment, even a fatal outcome is possible. [16] For this disease is characteristic:

  • Common rashes;
  • Strong itching;
  • febrile (38-39 ° C) and pyretic (39-41 ° C) fever;
  • an increase in lymph nodes;
  • Attaching a piococcal infection;
  • Development of sepsis (in severe cases).
Herpety eczema

Allergic dermatitis It may occur when exposed to the skin in the main and different chemicals (peelings), which cause the reaction of the hypersensitivity of the slow (IV) type. Allergen has the ability to penetrate the unchanged skin, is usually low molecular weight, not a dense compound.

Resistant erythema (redness) can be a consequence of laser grinding with 2or erbium laser. It persists on the skin for 3-4 months. Histologically redness arise as an inflammatory response or are the manifestation of the immaturity of the new epithelium. Some inconvenience to patients can also cause a demarcation line (line between the leather-treated skin and a healthy cloth), but should not be worried because it will pass with time.

Post-traumatic hyperpigmentation It may be observed in patients with dark skin, so the choice of the method of treating aesthetic skin disorders always begins with the definition of its phototype. [17]

Type of skin I type II type III type IV Type V Type
Color of the skin Light, with freckles Light, with freckles light coloured dark Veryzmugal
Eye color Glubeili green Carriage Blue Carriage dark Carriage dark brown
Hair color Light redhead Light redhead Dark Lyryyi Chestnut dark dark
Character The skin is easily and strongly turning, more often blushing, the resistant tan appear rarely Tan light, leather blushes Zanghetor tangle easily and smoothly tangle easily and smoothly
Reaction ultra-purple rays Strong development Satisfied irritation EasyRistion No expressions never irritation

Package: assistants

Acrone varieties a lot, as well as the reasons for their appearance, but unites them in one thing: inflammation is rarely disappeared without a trace. And get rid of their consequences - dark traces on the skin - it is more difficult than cope with the rashes themselves. These dark specks, called the Package - the "side effect" of the body's protective reaction into the inflammatory process.

Symptoms, species, causes and flow

Unlike scars and scars, traces of pedestal do not mean skin relief violations and manifest only in color change, varying from light pink to red or purple, or brown.

Pink, red and purple spots arise due to damage to the vessels and are called post-inflammatory erythema ( PVE ), and the reason for the appearance of brown traces of varying degrees of saturation (post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation PVGP ) Becoming a violation of melanin. It is believed that PVE is more common in people with light skin, and PVGP is more common among the owners of dark and dark skin. These two types of pedestal can occur at the same time.

With the pedestal, almost everyone who suffers from acne face, regardless of frequency and scale - large inflammatory elements, of course, lead to more intense and resistant pigmentation, but dark spots may well arise in place of relatively small and inconspicuous pimples. To the appearance of noticeable, stagnant traces leads the habit of pressing acne: each attempt to release the contents of the inflamed tubercle leads to the destruction of a larger amount of vessels and / or provokes a new protective reaction and, as a result, a new "dose" of melanin.

In most cases, pedestal disappear over time. But the key phrase is here - "over time": depending on the intensity of pigmentation, the scale of affected tissues and features of the skin, this process can take from several weeks to several years. Fortunately, you can speed it up with the help of a properly selected care.

Rules and precautions

Before you begin to combat the pedestal, you need to remember several rules:

  • The care system should not be products injured: hard scrubs, soap, alcohol-based means.

  • Use funds to get rid of the pedestal is recommended in the evening care system - often their active ingredients are destroyed under the influence of the Sun or amplify photosensitivity of the skin.

  • It is necessary to approach the protection of the skin with the responsibility. Use of high-performance SPF - is the urgent need.

  • You do not need to try to squeeze acne - it is likely to exacerbate the problem.

  • When entering the system of care of new means it is important to closely monitor the condition of the skin: the active ingredients in the composition of cosmetics used to combat acne and its consequences can cause irritation. In this case, use should be stop immediately.

Comprehensive components should be combined with high caution. We have prepared a small cheat sheet with combinations of the most "reactive" components:  

Aha-acid

Retinoida

Vitamin C.

Niacinamide

Enzymes

Aha-acid

-

Retinoida

-

Vitamin C.

-

Niacinamide

-

Enzymes

-

✔ - you can combine

✖ - combine undesirable

● - a combination is permissible at low concentration of components or when used at different times of the day

Recommendations in the table relate to home "experiments". In finished products, these ingredients may well meet side by side: when developing their concentration and formulas are selected in such a way as to ensure a stable result.

Methods of impact and means

Warning impact

The larger and painful inflammation, the less chance that it will disappear without a trace. Therefore, in order to reduce the likelihood of dark spots, you need to stop the inflammatory process without allowing it to develop and put the skin serious damage. To do this, use the means for problem skin, providing an antiseptic, soothing and / or drying effect.

Ducray, Soothing Cream against Keracnyl RP Skin Defects

La Roche-Posay, correction cream gel EFFACLAR DUO (+)

Holyland Laboratories, Drinking Double Action Lotion

Bark, tonic for oily and mixed skin with prebiotic

Surface (mechanical) impact  

If the appearance of a pedestal failed to prevent the appearance, work begins on the removal of excess pigment. The easiest (but not the most effective) method is mechanical exfoliation. Helping the skin to be updated in this way, we remove the particles with the content of excess pigment, gradually returning to a smooth, even tone. But with given the fact that we are talking about the skin, which is restored after the injury, this process should be the most careful.

Peelings rolling

The effect of such peeling gels is just aimed at gentle, delicate exfoliation. In their composition there are no coarse, sharp abrasive particles trauming skin: the impact occurs due to acrylates and fibers of cellulose, going through contact with skin fat in small lumps. These "rollers" and ensure the mechanical removal of erosioned particles - very soft and not honeycomb.

It is recommended to use piling rollers in the fight against the pedestal to the holders of sensitive skin and those who for any reason cannot use chemical exfoliants. Acting only in the uppermost layer of the skin and exerting a momentary effect, they will be effective in combating light, shallow spots.

Tsurri, gel roller against black dots with Moroccan volcanic clay Special Care

Librederm, peeling roller for face with chamomile

Farmstay, Peeling Gel with Kiwi Extract

Meishoku, Cleansing Peeling Gel with Easy Roll Effect

AHA, Facial Gel Face Cleansing with Fruit Acid

Deep (chemical) impact

There are a number of ingredients that allow you to reduce pigmentation gradually when regular use, stimulating the process of natural skin renewal or blocking melanin production.

Most effective, such components will be in the composition of products involving a long exposure time: creams, essences, masks, etc. - Means for cleansing skin with their content can be a good addition to the main care system, but it is unlikely that they will cope with the problem.

Exfoliating ingredients:

The removal of eroded cells can occur not only with mechanical friction - this function is performed by many components in the compositions of serums, creams, lotions, masks and other cosmetic products that imply regular use and providing a gradual effect.

Glycolic acid

One of the most popular components of the "renewing" care: glycolic acid molecules less than that of other AHA acids, and therefore can penetrate deeper into the skin. It stimulates skin renewal processes, exfoliates dead particles, returns healthy radiance and contributes to tone alignment.

Avene, Mask for Deep Cleansing Cleanance

Uriage, universal care Hyseac 3-REGUL

Vichy, anti-aging cream for problem skin NORMADERM ANTI-AGE

Caudalie, Glycolic Face Peeling Mask for All Skin Types

Lactic acid

The action of lactic acid (which also belongs to AHA acids) much more sparing than glycolic. It is the main component of a natural moisturizing factor (complex of molecules in a horn layer of the skin, which are responsible for saving moisture in it) , Therefore, suitable for caring for dry and dehydrated skin.

Aravia Professional, Peeling with lactic acid Lactica EXFOLIATE

Gigi, Peptide Cream Nutri-Peptide 10% Lactic Cream

Egia, renewing almond cream Biorinova Mandelic Renew Cream

Enzymes

In its effect of enzymes (protein molecules, which have the property of cleaving protein bonds between dead cells) similar to acids, but have a larger size of the molecule, which means there are even more superficial (but softer) effects.

ARAVIA PROFESSIONAL, ENZYME WASH POWDER

Collagene 3D, Facial Gel Pure Enzyme Pure Skin

Guam, Face Mask Enzyme Night Seatherapy

Janssen Cosmetics, updating Enzyme Peel Enzyme Gel

Outdoor (topical) retinoids

Retinoids (the most popular of which - Vitamin A / Retinol) accelerate the speed of updating skin cells, but compared to AHA acids and enzymes act deeper: not only in the horn layer, but also on deeper levels of the epidermis. Thanks to this, they are not only effective in the fight against the pedestal, but also help to solve the "root" problem, normalizing the production and composition of the skin and leaving the emergence of comedones.

Klapp, face oil with retinol a classic

SANA, moisturizing and tightening cream with retinol and isoflavones soy

Gigi, whitening mask, exfoliating Retinol Forte

Holyland Laboratories, Lightening Mask Alpha-Beta & Retinol Brighteening Mask

Home use with retinoids requires caution: in high concentrations they can lead to dryness, redness, strong peeling and sensation of burning - yes, with proper use, these symptoms pass without a trace, giving way to flawless smoothness and a flat skin tone, but allowing a small error, You can get the opposite effect.

Important: The use of retinoids is contraindicated during pregnancy and in breastfeeding period.

Bakuciol

Bakuciol is a vegetable equivalent of retinol. It has similar mechanism of action and effect, while it is considered suitable for sensitive skin and can be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Noreva, Face Cream Exfoliac Global 6

Bioderma, intensive healing care Sebium Global

All of the above ingredients help reduce pigmentation by stimulating the update processes - and this is one of the ways of exposure. Also deal with the pedestal can be due to direct work with the accumulation of pigment, i.e. Lightening the skin. You do not need to choose one or another option: on the contrary, it's good if these two functions are combined or alternate in care.

Brightening ingredients:

Azelain Acid

Azelain acid is a component, effective both in terms of acne and in the fight against its consequences. It, like other acids, stimulates the process of cellular update - but besides this, it is also essential to the dark plots, and also calms the skin.

Ducray, smoothing serum for problem skin keracnyl

EGIA, Seboregulating Biopura Seboregulating Mask Mask

LieRac, concentrate against acne, to correct the imperfections of SEBOLOGIE

Vitamin C.

In cosmetics, vitamin C is often found in the form of ascorbic acid - it begins to act immediately after applying and therefore is considered the most efficient. For sensitive skin, the means with derivatives of ascorbic acid are suitable - their action is not so pronounced, but they practically do not cause irritation. In any form, this ingredient prevents melanin production and transforms already existing pigment molecules, making them colorless.

Means with ascorbic acid:

HOLYLAND LABORATORIES, SUEX CE SUCCESS

Purito, highly concentrated serum with vitamin C

Sesderma, media in vitamin C-Vit vitamin

Means with ascorbic acid derivatives:

Caudalie, Serum-Activator Skin Lights Against Signs of Aging Vine [ACTIV]

Uriage, day care against pigment spots Depiderm

Japan Gals, Mask Vitamin C + Nano-Collagen Nanoc

Farmstay, Ampower Serum with Vitamins

Niacinamide

Niacinamide, one of the forms of vitamin B3, is a real component of the "superhero". He is attributed to the ability to smooth out the surface, restore the protective barrier of the skin, prevent the appearance of imperfections - and, of course, to deal with impaired pigmentation. Moreover, it works even in a very small concentration.

Purito, whitening and anti-aging cream with sea water for deep skin moisturizing

SVR, Cream Care SebiClear

Noreva, Gel for Problem Skin EXFOLIAC NC GEL

La Roche-Posay, Multi-Resting Moisturizing Soothing Effaclar H Cream

Bark, cream against freckles and pigment stains

Arbutin

The component, the main action of which is to block the redundant production of melanin (therefore in relation to PVE, it is not active in itself). It has vegetable origin and has a rather soft, slow action, therefore often occurs in combination with other clarifying ingredients (niacinamide, vitamin C)

Roland, Face Lotion "Arbutin + Placenta + Vitamin C"

CETTUA, face mask with arbutin "Lights of the skin"

Achromin, Day Cream with UV Protection Anti Pigment

So, at your disposal a whole arsenal of funds for the return of a healthy, smooth tone. However, when selecting a comprehensive care system, aimed at combating pedestal, do not forget also about the basic needs of the skin: moisturizing, maintaining tone and protection against external influences. To start, determine its type (in this will help you Our detailed article on skin types ) and basic needs, evaluate the severity of the Package and eliminate the probability of allergic reactions, and then Alone or with a dermatologist Choose the appropriate assistant to you, pushing out these criteria.

Finally, we want to add that the guarantee of effective care is in an integrated approach, regularity and constant observation of the general condition of the skin. Positive changes occur gradually and often they are difficult to notice with a naked eye, therefore the "documentation" of the process can become a useful habit. Before entering a new product in a leaving routine, take a picture of the problem area of ​​the skin in the daylight, and then continue to make such photos with a frequency of 3-5 days. So you can clearly track the state "to" and "after" and fully appreciate the result achieved.

The author is Marina Kanukhin.

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Pigment stains after acne: Cause and how to get rid of

After rashes on the skin, stains and scar changes remain - this phenomenon is called Package . Why pigment spots and other complications appear on the skin, how to prevent their occurrence - we will analyze in this publication.

Important! The occurrence of pigmentation and scarring on the skin of the face is the cause of psychological discomfort. The task is not only to get rid of the existing problem, but also prevent its emergence in the future!

CONTENT:

What is a pedestal

These are persistent changes in the skin, arise after the resolution of the elements of the acne. Complication of the course of acne disease.

What are the pedestal meet

Package There are 3 species, not only pigment stains:

  1. Scarring - The most unwanted complication of the pedestal

  2. Dark spots - Brown spots on the facilities of ex

  3. Stagnation erythema - Redness, accompanied by a seal of non-permitted element

All three types of pedestal may be present on the skin both simultaneously and separately, depending on the individual characteristics and inclination towards the appearance of pigmentation or scars.

Causes why pigment stains and scars arise on the face

Cause of complications - Chronic skin inflammation . This is a fundamental reason for the occurrence of acne themselves and complications after them.

If it does not start the treatment in time, then inflammation applies to deep tissues, damages them and increases the risk of project development.

Consider the predisposing factors, justifying why the part of the patients are rashed without a trace, and others have a tendency to complications.

The main predisposing factors of the appearance of the Package

  1. The severity of the flow of acne - acne III and IV severity more often lead to complications, because affecting deep layers of skin.
  2. Individual skin features, genetic predisposition - such as dark skin color, tendency to improve melanin production into the slightest inflammation or damage to the skin.
  3. Lack of treatment, not competent treatment, or later begun - This is when the process is long present in the skin and struck deep tissues.
  4. Skin injuries During mechanical cleaning, i.e. With rude squeezing acne.

The presence of at least one predisposing factor may cause the development of the Package.

How to avoid the appearance of pigment stains and scars

  1. Immediately begin treatment acne. It is impossible to ignore even light shapes - acne 0 -2 degrees when on the skin single elements.
  2. Do not put pressure! Banal, but a difficult point. It is possible to make skin cleaning and sometimes even needed, but to do neatly and competently at the beautician.
  3. Use Medicinal preparations with anti-inflammatory action. Do not confuse with antibacterial! Anti-inflammatory drugs have both preventive and therapeutic effects.

Recommendations arise from the previous paragraph - the elimination of predisposing factors.

How to get rid of the pedestal

Recommendations of the International Society of Dermatologists and Cosmetologists: Preparations of the 1st line of therapy acne and Package - this Retinoida .

  • Render anti-inflammatory action;
  • Normalize the operation of pigment cells, brightened pigment stains;
  • Normalize the work of the sebaceous glands. At acne, the number and composition of the skin saline - the main reason for the development of acne;
  • Enhance local immunity, which contributes to the fight against inflammation;
  • Stimulate the synthesis of collagen necessary to combat scars.

Due to such a wide range of cosmetic effects on the skin, retinoids are recognized as a gold standard of acne and pedestrian treatment.

The result of the use of retinoids:

    • Lightening pigment spots
    • Leather equalization
    • Reducing the depth of scars

Advantages of retinol:

  • Physiological - is a substance familiar to the skin, because The body itself supplies vitamin A in the skin in low concentrations;
  • Does not have toxic;
  • Suppresses the increased activity of melanocytes, while not destroying them, but normalizes the products of melanin;
  • It penetrates the skin well, reaching the necessary layers;
  • Stimulates the cellular update, not allowing to linger on the surface of the painted cells, accelerates their exfoliation.

How to effectively and safely use means with retinoids

It is not necessary to avoid the appointment of retinoids due to the concerns of side effects: redness, erythema, dryness and peeling.

This is easy to avoid if you follow the recommendations:

  1. Use cosmetic preparations with retinol professional brands

Is there a temptation to buy in a pharmacy an inexpensive means with retinoids? It is important to know the differences:

  • The pharmacy forms use synthetic analogues of retinol, more aggressive to work on the skin, with more probability provoking retinue dermatitis.
  • Cosmetic preparations contain natural forms of retinol, soft for work, with all the necessary functions on the skin.
  • The composition of cosmetics is introduced ingredients with a clarifying effect to enhance performance, as well as soothing and restoring effects - for the comfort of use.
  1. Adhere to the recommended application scheme

Each drug has its own use scheme with which you need to get acquainted before applying. The application difference is related to the fact that the rate of application is associated with the percentage and form of retinol.

A number of funds are used black on-room (up to 0.5%), and the means with 1-2% retinol in the increasing scheme.

  1. Stain

If there are no additional indications for the use of retinol, it suffices to apply the means only to the area of ​​pigment stains and scar changes in the package.

  1. Use only for the night

Retinoides photosensitive, so applied to the skin in the evening. One-time application is sufficient, it is important not to forget in the morning to apply sunscreen with SPF on the skin, because the photosensitivity of the skin is increasing, especially at the beginning of therapy.

  1. Patience!

The work of retinoids is physiological, therefore, the result of application is not visible instantly, after 2 months of use. But the result is due to the gradual physiological effects of the natural ingredient, persistent and expressed. Fully get rid of pigment spots is possible for 6 - 8 months of use.

Brightening serum Brighting Dermaquest With a content of 2% of retinol, it is enriched with stem cells of lily snow-white and bakuciol.

Behavoor advantages:

  • Percentage Retinol - 2% effectively normalizes the work of melanocytes;
  • A rich complex whitening ingredients ingredients: Snow white stem cells, Bakuchiol (imitator of vitamin A), hexylzincinol, vegetable extracts, etc. - Efficiency 4 times higher than the use of hydroquinone ;
  • Contains Antioxidants - Vitamin C in modern form, vitamin E, green tea extract - restoration of protective mechanisms of the skin;
  • The serum is enriched with hyaluronic acid, jojoba oil and aloe extract for comfort of use and storing the barrier function of the skin;
  • Security - does not contain hydroquinone ;
  • Removes the skin - retinol in the composition of the serum stimulates the synthesis of collagen, parallel to the sealing skin.

Application according to a special scheme:

The 1st week is 1 time, 2nd week - 2 times, 3 weeks - 3 times, 4th week and hereinafter - 4 times a week.

Updating Cream with Retinaldehyde Dermaquest - Nakhodka for owners of fine, sensitive skin.

Benefits of cream:

  • Contains retinol for sensitive skin - Retinaldehyde ;
  • Has a wide range of readings: photoborement, age-related changes, acne and pigmentation;
  • The composition is reinforced by imitator vitamin A - Bakuciol - improving the efficiency of retaaldehyde;
  • Contains Antioxidants and moisturizing complexes - powerful prophylaxis of inflammation and irritation of the skin, the safety of its barriers;

Used daily, 1 time per day in the evening.

Difference of retinaldehyde from retinol : 10 times more active than retinol, is a transitional form between retinol and retinic acid. It does not cause irritation of the skin and the development of retinue dermatitis.

Recommended for use for all skin types, especially for fine, sensitive or irritated. It is used daily with saved skin comfort.

Renewal cream with retinaldehyde - with the slightest concerns of the use of retinoids and for a comfortable skin acquaintance with vitamin A!

Application:

Cream is applied daily in the evening on clean skin.

How to remove traces from acne on the face

From this article you will learn:

  • how to get rid of spots from acne
  • How to remove scars from acne on the face,
  • What to do if scars appeared after the windmill.

After acne and windmills on the face, traces are often left, which spoil the appearance of the skin. Another 10-15 years ago, it was difficult to help such patients, but modern hardware cosmetology allows you to almost completely solve this aesthetic problem. In addition, chemical peels, as well as a number of pharmaceutical preparations and cosmetic agents may be useful.

Traces from acne can be divided into 3 main types - 1) post-inflammatory erythema or redness, 2) post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or brown spots, 3) Atrophic scars that are very often formed on the site of large inflammatory foci at acne, as well as after windmill , 4) Keloid scars that are much less common. Consequently, how to remove traces from acne on the face - first of all will depend on the type of lesion.

1. Post-inflammatory erythema -

Red spots after acne (post-inflammatory erythema)  Red spots after acne (post-inflammatory erythema)  Red spots after acne (post-inflammatory erythema)

Post-inflammatory erythema is the most frequent type of spots after acne. Such stains are painted from pink - to bright red or purple. They are formed in the place of Papul and Pustulus (acne) - due to the persistent expansion of blood capillaries, and this is more characteristic of people with light skin. You can do nothing with such stains, and they will disappear independently, but it can take several months or even longer.

2. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation -

Multiple small sites of hyperpigmentation on the skin of the forehead arising after acne   

Such pigment stains have a brown tint, and are associated with the excess accumulation of melanin pigment in the region of the inflamed skin area. Such stains are more often formed in periods of high solar activity. Moreover, in the area of ​​acne in the form of papules without pus - usually weakly pigmented stains appear, and on the spot there are hyperpigance stains on the spot.

3. Atrophic scars (after acne or windmill) -

Atrophic scars after acne  Atrophic scars after windmill (chickenpox)

Atrophic scars look like recesses on the surface of the skin (minus fabric). They are formed due to a collagen synthesis violation in inflamed skin sites. Such scars from acne, as a rule, remain after healing large inflammatory foci - such as nodes or cysts. Sometimes the scarring can disrupt the synthesis of the pigment of melanin, which at the same time will then lead to the hypopigmentation of these skin sections. Scars after acne and scars after a windmill are treated equally.

Below we consistently examine the treatment of all these forms.

How to get rid of red spots after acne -

Above, we have already said that such red spots after acne is more correct called post-inflammatory erythema. Her formation on the spot of resolved acne is associated with a persistent expansion of blood capillaries in the focus of inflammation. Accordingly, how to remove the red spots from acne - lies exclusively in the use of methods that allow you to destroy extended capillaries.

First of all, we are talking about the use of 2 types of special devices: pulsed lasers on liquid dyes, as well as IPL devices. They work in a similar way: light pulses penetrate a small depth through the surface layers of the skin and absorbed by hemoglobin blood. This leads to the fact that in extended capillaries there is a large amount of thermal energy, which leads to their coagulation. As a result, the skin color on the place of erythema is gradually restored to normal.

Treatment with a laser of red spots after acne (photo before and after)

Below we will analyze examples of effective erythema devices after acne.

1. Pulse lasers on the dye -

The pulse laser on the dye is considered to be a gold standard for the treatment of post-inflammatory erythema. These lasers most often work at a wavelength of 585 nm, although there are also long-pulse lasers on the dye (with a wavelength of 595 to 600 nm). The latter includes the Vbeam Perfecta laser, which is very effective for erythema therapy after acne, and we would put it on 1 place - in comparison with all other devices listed below.

Example, one of the studies ("Acne Erythema Improvement by Long-Pulsed 595-NM Pulsed-Dye Laser Treatment: A Pilot Study" Lee, Kim, Park, 2008). This study shows that 2 sessions of the long-pulse laser on the dye (with an interval of 4 weeks) - lead to a resistant improvement in 90% of patients. At the same time, the number of lesions after the 1st session decreased by about 24.9%, and after the 2nd session, another 57.6% (in some cases, erythema was preserved, but the size of the stains in any case became less).

Also, this laser contributes to a decrease in atrophic scars. Therefore, if you need not only to remove traces from acne in the form of red spots, but at the same time there is a goal to get rid of acne scars - this laser can be a good option.

2. Potassium-titanyl phosphate laser (KTP) -

The CTR lasers operate at a wavelength of 532 nm (an example is the "Compact" laser). These lasers work well on a decrease in post-inflammatory erythema, but still slightly inferior to pulsed lasers on the dye. On the production of collagen in the dermis, this type of laser is already practically not affected, so if you have both scars after acne at the same time - this laser will not be able to help reduce them.

However, in addition to the treatment of post-inflammatory erythema, KTP lasers can also be applied to the treatment of papuo-pustine shape acne (acne). The fact is that the wavelength of 532 nm is absorbed by the porphyrins of bacteria P.acnes What leads to the destruction of their bacterial walls. Thus, if in addition to post-inflammatory erythema, there are both active foci of inflammation, the use of a KTP laser may be preferable (24stoma.ru).

3. Devices for IPL therapy -

Intensive pulse light (IPL) is one of the treatment options for post-inflammatory erythema in patients with acne. From the lasers of the IPL device, they differ in that they do not work on some single wavelength, but simultaneously in the range from about 400 to 1200 nm. For the treatment of post-inflammatory erythema, FDA approved the use of the IPL module of the device "Lumenis M22". Moreover, in the clinic, there must be special "vascular" light filters to the IPL module (530-650 and 900-1200 nm).

In general, the IPL devices are quite effective for the treatment of red spots after acne, but they are still inferior to the same pulsed lasers on the dye. For example, a dye pulse laser may require only 2 sessions, and at the same time resistant erythema on the IPL device - may require from 3 to 5 sessions. In addition, the IPL devices can also be used for therapy of active inflammatory foci with acne, but for this it uses another light filter (400-600 nm) intended for acne therapy.

4. ND: YAG Lasers -

Post-inflammatory erythema after acne is connected more with superficial blood vessels, but this laser penetrates deeper than it is usually necessary. Therefore, ND: YAG lasers are not too effective in conventional post-inflammatory erythene. The only exception will be the treatment of erythema, which was caused by the expansion of blood capillaries in the deep layers of the dermis. An example of such a laser will be "Cutera Genesis", which operates at a wavelength of 1064 nm.

ND: Yag-lasers like "Cutera Genesis" for patients with acne are more interesting for the fact that they are able to destroy the sebaceous glands with heat, which will significantly reduce the fatty skin and symptoms of acne. In addition, this type of lasers will be effective in the treatment of atrophic scars after acne, because Its impact stimulates the synthesis of collagen in the dermis.

5. Fractional RF devices -

Such devices are a novelty of modern hardware cosmetology. The devices for fractional radio wave lifting (fractional RF-lifting) are also very effective for the therapy of red spots after acne. One of the best devices can be called the Venus Viva device (Canada / Israel). Fractional impact in this apparatus provides a special "Nanofractional RF" applicator. With it, it can be effectively affected not only on red spots after acne, but also on the hyperpigated stains associated with the deposition of melanin.

In addition, the fractional impact on the skin simultaneously stimulates the synthesis of collagen in the skin, which will not only increase its elasticity and smooth out the wrinkles, but also significantly reduce the depth of atrophic scars after acne. In addition to Venus Viva, there are several more manufacturers of fractional RF devices. For example, Syneron has a Sublative RF tip, which comes with ETWO ™ and ELOS Plus ™ devices.

Important :Now advertise many means from acne spots that can be bought in a pharmacy. Such skin casing (based on retinoids, azelainic acid, tyrosinase blockers, etc.) - help only with brown pigment stains. In addition, with post-inflammatory erythene, chemical peels should not do, because You will receive the opposite effect.

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How to remove spots from acne brown -

The appearance after acne pigment spots of brown color is associated with the overhaul of the pigment of melanin. This process is called post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, but usually such spots also pass on themselves (on time from 3 to 24 months). To avoid the appearance of foci of hyperpigmentation on the spot of acne - patients with acne needed during periods of high solar activity to always use non-comedy tools from the sun with SPF from 30.

How to remove spots from acne on the face - this can be done either using special cosmetics or with hardware methods. As for cosmetics, in fact, most of the advertised funds are either not effective in hyperpigmentation at all, or have very weak efficiency. The standard for hyperpigmentation therapy is the effect compared with the use of 4% hydroquinone (currently it is prohibited in many countries in view of a strong toxic action).

The best remedy for dark spots after acne -

  1. Tritinoin (Cream "Retin-A", "A-RET GEL", etc.) - at a concentration of 0.05-0.1% contributes to a rather pronounced clarification of foci of hyperpigmentation. Officially, drugs with tertinin in Russia are not sold, but they can be purchased under the order on the Internet. The price for Tuba 20 g begins from 800 rubles. The disadvantage of Tritianin means is that at the first stage of use they have an irritant effect on the skin.
  2. The company "SkinCeuticals" (USA) produces such a means from hyperpigmentation as "Advanced Pigment Corrector". This drug is applied point to the sites of hyperpigmentation. In its composition, 0.3% salicylic acid, 1% hydroxyphenoxy-propionic acid, 0.5% ELLATIC acid, etc. According to clinical studies, the effectiveness of this means is comparable using 4% hydroquinone.
  3. The combination of 10% of glycolic acid and 0.5-1% of the koyaic acid - gives a good effect for 1-2 months with two-time applications per day. This is an extremely effective combination, but it is necessary to take into account that if you apply tools only with one glycolic acid - you will need more time to achieve a similar effect. The company "SESDERMA" (Spain) produces several interesting products for hyperpigmentation correction.

    The depgmentation gel "Kojicol Plus" just comprises a combination of glycolic and coil acids + alpha-waterbutin, phytic acid and silver extract (this gel is used for moderate pigmentation, is applied point). A slightly stronger clarifier gel "Hidrquin" - contains alpha-waterbutin, ferulovic acid, retinol, vitamin C + niacinamide (nicotinamide).

    SESDERMA also produces 2 professional products (you can only buy them through cosmetologists' doctors). Firstly, this is "Target cream" based on retinol, alpha-waterbutin, as well as transcamic, cell and lemon acids. Secondly, this is "Target Liposomal Serum" (it contains azelainic acid, 4N-butyl musicinol, retinol, glycyreretic acid, alpha-waterbutin, niacinamide, white silky extract, ascorbil glucoside, etc.). Products are applied locally on pigment spots.

  4. Preparations with azelainic acid (for example, skinned cream or gel) - they are quite effective in hyperpigmentation, but to achieve a pronounced effect you will need to wait for about 5-6 months.
  5. The remaining components are components such as arbutin (alpha-waterbutin), licorice root extract, silky extract, embrianin, nicotinamide - are only secondary components for hyperpigmentation therapy. As for the use of antioxidants (for example, vitamin C), they effectively reduce the severity of pigmentation that has developed as a result of UV irradiation, but they act much worse for post-inflammatory pigmentation.

How to get rid of acne traces fast -

If you decide to use the means for outdoor use (in the form of cream, gel or serum), then quickly remove the hyperpigance spots - it will not work. How to get rid of traces from acne for only 1-2 procedures - in this you will again help the achievements of hardware cosmetology. This can be done using IPL or lasers or lasers, for example, the same "Lumenis M-22" apparatus, which is approved by the FDA, including for hyperpigmentation therapy.

The device "Lumenis M-22" is a multifunctional platform that combines both the IPL module and the RESURFX fractional laser. Depending on the severity of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation at the discretion of the doctor, one or another module can be used. ELOS devices can also be used, which are combined at once 2 types of influence on a pigment spot (IPL + RF energy), although they are not so effective.

Therapy of foci of hyperpigmentation using IPL -

Application IPL for the treatment of spots after acne

Chemical peelings   –

This is another option of how quickly you can cope with post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. However, it is not as fast as hardware cosmetology, and not so efficiently. For example, in this you can help peelings with almond acid (the improvement is achieved about 55% of cases). Another option is peelings with a combination of glycolic and koyaic acids, but such peels cannot be made to patients who take oral contraceptives, because It will strengthen pigmentation.

Another effective peeling from post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is the "Azelac RU" of Mediiderma. It contains a combination of azelain, almond, phytinic and ferulic acids, as well as 4n-butyl musicinol. In any case, it must be said that even a whole course of peelings is unlikely to allow - it is guaranteed to remove all the foci of pigmentation completely, but it will definitely improve the situation in about 2 months (Fig. 11).

Photo before and after a series of surface chemical peeling procedures

How to remove scars from acne and windmill -

Scars from acne and windmills are atrophic (minus fabric), although sometimes Kellloid scars may occur after severe acne forms. Scars after acne (as well as the scars after the windmill) - are defects of the dermis and, accordingly, methods affecting the dermal layer of skin will be applied to correct them. According to the adopted international classification, all atrophic scars are divided into 3 main types -

The division of scars on types has a clinical value, because Different treatment methods show different efficiency when working with different types of atrophic scars after acne. Scars "Punch Iceerba" - are narrow, deep, sharply outlined scars, the bottom of which can reach deep layers of dermis or even subcutaneous fiber. A rolling rubber (it is also called groove) - have a form of a deep long gutter with a width of 4 to 5 mm.

The carriage scars are recessed from a round to oval shape with sharply outlined vertical edges. According to statistics, the scars "Punch Icelock" make up about 60-70% (from the total number of scars after acne), carriaous - about 20-30%, rolled up - about 15-20%. The scars after the windmill fully correspond to the carriage scars after acne, and will be treated accordingly. Below we will focus on the most effective techniques, but first we list the methods that should not waste time and money.

Useless and intolerating methods -

  • Special creams from scars and scars of the type of contracturex or any other (just zero effect),
  • Cosmetics with retinoids and vitamin C (can only be used as a preparatory stage to hardware techniques),
  • Injection of phillers (expensive, and temporary effect).

Chemical peeling TCA -

Scars "Punch Iceerbomb" are well adjusted by peeling with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), but this method should be avoided in patients with dark skin due to the high risk of developing hyperpigmentation. Conducting median peeling will mean the concentration of TCA at 40-50% (only in this case there is damage to the papillary layer of the dermis), and all that below 40% is only superficial peeling to the depth of the epidermis. Accordingly, we need TCA at least 40%.

It should be noted that such a high concentration means certain risks. Therefore, such a peeling should be done only at a very experienced doctor of the dermato-cosmetologist. Below you can see the result after 3 TCA peeling procedures 50%, where the intervals between the procedures amounted to 4 weeks. As you can see, a significant improvement has been achieved, and other techniques can be used (for example, laser grinding, or a method of perforation removal of individual scars).

Chemical peeling TCA (photo before and after)

Chemical peeling TCA (photo before and after)

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Laser face grinding -

There is a huge number of types of lasers that can be used to correct scars after acne and windmills, but we will try to systematize this information. All lasers for the correction of scarring can be divided into 2 main categories (each of which in turn is divided into two more):

  • ablative (traditional and fractional),
  • Non-ablation (traditional and fractional).

a) the best ablative lasers   –

Ablative lasers seem to evaporate surface layers of the skin, but simultaneously affect the dermis, stimulating the formation of collagen in it. Those. The term "ablative" means that the impact of the laser is associated with mandatory damage to the skin surface. Traditional ablative CO2 lasers are extremely effective for correction of atrophic scars (the improvement in the state of the scars by 50-80% is achieved only after 1 procedure), but such lasers have a high risk of complications and side effects.

This is due to the fact that traditional ablation lasers operate in solid grinding mode (i.e., there is a total damage to the entire surface of the skin on the processed area). Due to the large number of side effects and a long period of rehabilitation, ablative lasers of a fractional type were developed. Their feature is that they damage the skin fractionally (fragmentary), i.e. Between the damaged areas of the skin remains intact areas that will contribute to much more rapid healing.

One of the best ablative fractional CO2 lasers - can be called "acupulse" (Lumenis, Israel), it works with a wavelength of 10 600 nm. There are also ablative fractional erbium lasers (ER: YAG) - with a wavelength of 2940 nm. The effectiveness of CO2 and Er: YAG lasers is practically comparable, however, those and others may require 2-3 procedures (while for the ablation traditional laser only 1 procedure may be required).

I would like to note that the ablative fractional laser "Acupulse" can also work if necessary and in the total grinding mode of the skin flap (i.e., act as a fractional laser, but as traditional).

Laser grinding with a CO2 laser (after 1 procedure)

a) non-ablation lasers (traditional and fractional)

Non-ablation lasers (unlike ablative) cause thermal damage to only the dermis and deep layers of the epidermis, and damage to the surface horizontal layer of the epidermis does not occur at all. They stimulate the formation of a new collagen in the dermis - as a result of which the scar is lifted to the surface. We have already said above that non-balance lasers are also divided - on traditional and fractional.

When we talked about the treatment of post-inflammatory erythema - we already talked about pulsed lasers on the dye (585 or 595 nm), KTP lasers 532 Nm, as well as ND: YAG lasers 1064 nm. They are just belonging to non-balanced traditional lasers. But besides them, they also need to include ND: YAG 1320 Nm lasers, as well as diode lasers 1450 nm. Absolutely all these lasers have about the same efficiency, which is quite modest.

Clinical studies show that after 1 procedure, the state of the scars is improved only by about 20-30%. This means that for optimal results you may need from 3 to 5 procedures. Of course, the effectiveness of non-balanced traditional lasers is much less ablative lasers (both traditional and fractional). Well, the last type of lasers, about which we want to tell - these are non-balanced fractional lasers, to which the Fraxel Re: Store laser belongs.

Non-balanced fractional lasers differ from traditional the fact that thermal damage to the dermis and deep layers of the epidermis occurs fractionally (that is, there will be intact areas between damaged areas). Fraxel Re: Store is an erbium fiber optic laser with a long wave of 1550 nm. Clinical studies show that improving the state of scarring after acne occurs by about 50% after 1 procedure.

Fraxel: Photo before and after

Laser Skin Grinding Laser Fraxel  Laser Skin Grinding Laser Fraxel

Several important points relating to laser grinding -

You must understand that laser grinding will show different efficiency in different types of atrophic scars. The main testimony for laser grinding will be cargo and groove (rolled) scars. For example, if we take the Fraxel Re: Store laser, then on the carriage scars, it can show an improvement to 50% (for 1 procedure), groove - only up to 40%, and on the scar by the "Strike Ice Center" type - improvement will only up to 25%.

The same will touch any other type of laser, i.e. On the scar by the type "Punch Iceerbone" - any kind of laser grinding a priori will be less effective. Therefore, you should understand that the number of laser grinding procedures, which may be required - will depend not only on the type of laser, but also from the type of atrophic scars on your skin. Carriage scars after acne are always adjusted easier (respectively, like scars after the windmill).

Fractional RF lifting -

At the beginning of the article, we have already said that such devices are effective from red spots after acne. But at the same time they are very effective and atrophic scars after acne or windmill. We recommend 2 apparatus for this. Firstly, the device "Venus Viva" (production of Canada / Israel), which must be configured by the Nanofractional RF tip. Secondly, ETWO ™ and ELOS Plus ™ devices from Syneron, which must be equipped with a sublative RF faction tip.

Disposable applicators with microchiglam (electrodes up to 1 mm) are supplied to the fractional tips of these devices (electrodes up to 1 mm), with which thermal damage in the epidermis and dermis are produced. Damage is fractional character, i.e. They are surrounded by intact fabrics for the speedy refrembation of damage. The injuries of the epidermis are microscopic character and are not noticeable, the main effect is realized in the dermis.

Thus, it is an ablative technique (with damage to the horn layer of the epidermis), but unlike laser grinding procedures - a fractional radio frequency lifting has a very short period of rehabilitation and the absence of side effects. The method is effective not only in atrophic scars, but also for post-inflammatory erythema therapy and hyperpigmentation. Below you can see - photos before and after the course of 3 procedures of fractional RF lifting.

Photo before and after the course of 3 procedures of fractional RF lifting

Application of the Dermapin or Mesoroller apparatus -

Dermapen works perfectly where there is a "minus fabric", i.e. in atrophic scars. This is a fractional apparatus, which with the help of mechanical movements of the nochal nozzles - causes the skin of the micro-damage. And on damage, the skin naturally reacts with regeneration, i.e. Collagen synthesis stimulation occurs. Depending on the quantity, depth and type of atrophic scars - the course of treatment may require from 3 to 6-8 procedures.

The first results can be seen after 6-8 weeks from the date of the procedure, and the final result can be estimated only 3 months after the last procedure. The same applies to any other methods (for example, laser grinding). This is due to the fact that the stimulation of collagen production in response to skin damage is delayed over time and increases gradually.

Dermapen: photo before and after

Photo before and after a course of fractional mesotherapy Dermapin apparatus

The mesonoller is a cheaper alternative to Dermapen apparatus. It works on the same principle - leaves in the skin of micro-damage, but damage is already applied not strictly vertically, but under a changing angle (because the mesoroller drum with needles rotates). It is not too good and can lead to flaws of the skin due to the production of pathological scarsing collagen. Below you can see photos before and after 3 procedures spent on the interval of 4 weeks.

Mesoroller: Photo before and after

Mesoroller: Photo before and after

How to increase the efficiency of these methods -

The efficiency of the use of Dermapin or Mesoroller can be increased if you spend special training. Clinical studies have shown that if the patient for at least 1 month (optimally 2-3 months) used topical retinoids, then the effectiveness of the method increased significantly. As retinoids, it can be used: products with pure retinol (at least 0.3-0.4% and up to 1%), as well as tertinoin 0.025%.

Means with the L-form of ascorbic acid can also be used with a concentration of 15% (instead of retinoids), because They also stimulate the production of collagen in the skin. Another preparation option is an injection mesotherapy in the Cake of the Cosmetologist. In this case, several procedures are first carried out using nucleotides (DNA RNA complexes) - an excellent Italian preparation for this "Plinest". After that, several injection procedures with complexes containing peptides matrixes (they stimulate the production of collagen).

After such an injection preparation of 4-6 procedures - we turn to the dermpent or the mesoroller. We hope that our article: how to get rid of spots after acne, scars from acne and windmills - it turned out to be useful for you!

Sources :

1. Tutorial on dermatology "Fitzpatrick's Dermatology" (8th edition), 2. American Academy of Dermatology (USA), 3. National Library of Medicine (USA), 4. "Cosmetic dermatology" (Bauman L.). 5. Clinical studies published on https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.

How to remove stains from acne

How to get rid of spots from acne

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As in adolescence, and in adulthood, people face skin problems - acne, echsions, guns, etc. With proper care, the defects disappear, without leaving the trace. However, the situation is often exacerbated by the extrusion of acne, thereby traumating the epidermis. This is one of the most frequent causes of stagnant stains of pedestropment - skin changes, or, in medical, acne.

The pedestal manifests itself in the form of extended pores and pores, and is also expressed as pigmentation or in separate stains other than the total tone of the skin. What are the front and how to get rid of them - read below.

Varieties of Package

In addition to atrophic scars and scars - the most difficult in the information of the type of Package, there are also post-inflammatory erythema and volatile pigmentation. This two phenomena is devoted to today's article.

how to get rid of the pedestal on the face

Valid Erythema - Most often occurs on light skin. She is subject to most Russians and Europeans who are addressed to the problem of the Package. Erythema looks like a pink, red or purple spot, remaining at the place of acne. She arises due to the injury of capillaries in the inflamed zone of the hair follicle.

Valid Pigmentation - Brown stains. The color is due to the increased content of melanin, which occurs due to the ingress of aggressive sunlight on unprotected injuried skin.

Svetlana Viktorovna Ogorodnikova

Learn what method of scar correction and stretch marks are optimal for you!

Ask a question to the doctor Svetlana Viktorovna Ogorodnikova.

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Why appear post?

Causes of the appearance of Package

Spots and rods after acne - always the result of incorrect or insufficient vocational treatment. When removing the stains of Package, especially if they are on the face, first of all it is important to observe hygiene: do not squeeze the shelter, do not touch it with dirty hands, wash your face with cosmetic foam and wipe the problematic place.

The causes of the pedestal may be different: deep inflammation, such as knots and cysts, a long fight against rash on the face, which inevitably leaves traces, even simple squeezing of acne, when the vessels are injured and can penetrate infection.

A small defect heals in a couple of days, in a more serious case, several weeks can take recovery. Speed ​​depends on the individual characteristics of the person: cell regeneration, the balance of hormones in the body, the deficiency of vitamins or the quality of cosmetics that it uses in the fight against the package.

How to get rid of spots after acne in cosmetology

how to remove stains after acne on the face with cosmetology

Excessive "Leopardism" does not affect human well-being, but its appearance suffers noticeably from such acquisitions. It is logical that the first specialist to which they turn to to remove the pedestal and stagnant stains is a beautician. What ways it helps with erythema:

  • exposure to a laser for capillaries;
  • gels and ointments, narrowing vessel walls;
  • Cream and masks.

Experts in the field of cosmetology believe that Erythema is capable and herself will disappear in six months - a year. But in the case of pigmentation, get rid of stains is noticeably more difficult:

  • Microdermabrasion - "Spilization" of the horn layer of the skin. For complete removal of pigmentation, the pedestal requires 2-3 sessions, and the skin is restored month. At this time, direct sunlight should be avoided and refrain from hiking into the solarium.
  • Mesotherapy with vitamins. It happens in the form of injections with a concentrate of vitamins, nucleic and amino acids, proteins. And it can also be applied to the skin with a vitamin cocktail, which is delivered to the deep layers of the epidermis using a laser apparatus.
  • Photothermolysis. The procedure implies the burning of the upper layer of the epidermis, and the thermal effect provokes cell regeneration. Phototermolysis eliminates not only from stains, but also from small wrinkles, scars and high skin porosity.
  • Ozone therapy. Removal of pigment spots in ozone. There are three species: mesoosonotherapy, ozone tonic and injections. The first is the treatment of pure skin with a roller with ozone-ozone composition. Ozone tonic - rubbing the skin by the ozone cocktail, is particularly recommended against pigment brown spots. With the help of ozone injections, the ozone cocktail is introduced under the skin, and the area of ​​the injection is noticeable. Massage movements are evenly distributed throughout the problem zone - this method is effective in atrophic scars and wrinkles.
  • Laser grinding face. Requires long preparation: a month before the procedure to avoid ultraviolet, in 14 days start using sunscreen, pass the medical examination, pass urine and blood tests. Spots from acne on the face will go only after the course of procedures that lasts from 3 to 10 sessions.
  • Dermabrasion. Mechanical abrasion of the horn layer of the skin. It happens superficial, deep and medium. Surface dermabrasion erases all layers of leather up to the basal membrane, the average concerns only the basal level, and the deep penetrates the nobble layer of the epidermis.
  •  Chemical peeling. Organic acids are used, which cause burns and subsequent dieting the upper layer of the skin.

In addition to the obligatory period of recovery after each of the following procedures, they also require tangible cash costs. But to get rid of stains from acne, you can not resort to expensive cosmetology. Young and small traces are eliminated with special ointments or gels that are sold on any pharmacy or are manufactured at home.

Their effectiveness can be strengthened by physiotherapy - under the influence of ultrasound or electric current, the useful components of the means from stains are penetrated deep into the epidermis and are more efficient than the use of applications only. Such procedures are made both in the clinic and houses with a portable apparatus.

How to get rid of spots after acne with physiotherapy

how to get rid of the pedestal on the face of physiotherapy

With old scars, stains from acne or stretch marks of the usual appliques of cosmetic and therapeutic agents is not enough. To increase their effectiveness apply physiotherapy - most often this course of phonophoresis procedures or ultrafond formophoresis.

Phonophoresis

Delivers the useful substances of the gel or cream in the deep layers of the epidermis due to the effect of ultrasound. In order to get rid of red spots after acne, it is enough to influence the application with a frequency of 880 kHz to 2950 kHz.

The transferred components fall on 3-4 cm under the skin, where they accumulate and affect the body gradually. That is why the effect of physiotherapy is preserved longer than simply from the application of the applications, even if the cosmetics in itself are not bad.

To conduct a session, we need an environment - gel or cream with useful components that need to be used epidermis cells. The substance is applied only on pre-cleaned skin! Since the air does not tolerate ultrasound, then the apparatus for phonophoresis should be tightly to the applixation of the cream (medium) on the site of the problem zone.

Next, the required ultrasound frequency is set - the smaller the figure, the stronger the impact on the body. So, at a frequency of 800-1000 kHz ultrasound penetrates 5-6 cm, and at 2400 kHz per 1-2 cm. In the case of stains from acne, the high depth is not needed to solve the problem of non-medical, but a cosmetology, deeper 2 cm Do not work.

One session takes 10-15 minutes, depending on the specific case and recommendations of the specialist. To remove the red stains from acne, you need to go through a course of 8-15 procedures with intervals on day two.

Read more in our article:

How to remove stains after acne with gel Fermencol

Fermencol from acne spots

All farm products are aimed at eliminating skin defects, such as pigmentation, acne traces, scars, stretch marks, as well as solutions from a number of other problems associated with injury to the epidermis.

Remove the stains of the Package will help a specially designed product line, aimed at correcting skin relief, normalization of color and restoration of healthy tissue. It contains 9 active collagenase enzymes - substances that are produced from crustacean shelbs or cattle bones.

Collagenase affects the formation of collagen - the main construction material of the cells, regulates its production and splits over the simplest substances that are derived from the body naturally or go to the construction of healthy tissue. Thus, the skin relief is equalized, the pits and bugs disappear.

The skin color in the problem zone is due to the injury of capillaries, if we are talking about erythema, or impaired melanin production to a greater or less, if the problem is pigmentation. Fermencol splits the "bad" fibers without affecting the "correct", thereby without affecting the adjacent healthy skin and normalizing the color at the occurrence of acne.

To strengthen the cosmetic effect, experts recommend applying Fermancol together with phonophoresis. The course of procedures can be held both in the clinic at the place of residence and houses with a portable apparatus Neston for electrophoresis. You can purchase products by ordering online or in the pharmacies of your city. Before applying, consult with a specialist, it will appoint an optimal number and time of procedures. You can get a consultation of the doctor's practitioner on our website, you just need to go to the corresponding section, describe in detail the problem and attach the photo of the disturbing zone.

Fermencol products helped to get rid of the pedestal to many people, just some of the reviews:

Remember! The sooner you begin the course, the faster it will reach the desired result and can again be happy with healthy and beautiful skin!

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The content of the article:

What is a pedestal

Acne can appear on the face and neck, in the inter-opaque area, on the back and in the upper part of the chest. Acne or acne is an education on the skin of inflammatory elements - compacted red-free tubercles (papules) and black dots, purulent white heads with redness around. If the items are injured, squeezed out or badly, the charted, pigment changes on the skin are formed - this is a pedestal.

Photo What looks like

So it looks like a pedestal

Causes of the appearance and region of the localization of the Package

The skin is the largest organ in the human body, and it has a complex structure. In addition to the cells of the epithelium forming continuous skin, there are still hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands. It is glands that excrete skin fat and forming a protective hydrolyphic mantle on the surface of the epithelium, suffer from acne's development.

To begin with, it is important to understand why acne arise. In disruption of the silent glands of the epithelium in the duct area thickens, the clearance of the gland is narrowed and the skin fat can not be regularly and fully allocated through the pores to the surface. Then the fat secret is delayed within the fiber of the gland, which provokes inflammation with the participation of microbes, which are constantly present on the surface of the skin, making it the microflora.

The process of education acne passes certain stages: Initially, comedones are formed - an increase in the row of sizes. The nodules in the skin with irritated mouth of the sebaceous gland are formed. As the process develops in the center, black dots are formed, and the disruption of the outflow of the skin saline, the activity of the microbes, the operation of leukocytes during inflammation leads to the formation of purulent heads (empty).

By themselves, these elements can leave after themselves scars, skin irregularities, and when they are additional injury, if you squeeze black dots or purulent heads, inflammation is only enhanced, purulent contents can go to adjacent skin areas.

In order for the inflammation does not apply, more and more fabric sections were not damaged, and the pus did not penetrate the neighboring zones, inflammatory changes are formed around the damage to the hydro gland.

In the area of ​​acne occurs swelling, collagen generation is stimulated, scar changes are formed: the connective tissue elements are formed, new capillaries are generated, which gives redness, the operation of pigment cells is stimulated - pigment spots are formed - resistant and uneven edges.

Especially often problems arise on the face, mainly in the forehead, on the nose and on the cheeks, on the chest, also they appear in the neckline zone either on the back.

Reduction over time disappear, pigmentation becomes not so bright, the scars can atrophy, forming snaps, or, on the contrary, become convex and rude.

Types and Stages of Package

Among the main signs of pedestal, hyperpigmentation is distinguished - these are areas of normally painted and darker skin, alternating and forming an uneven tone.

In addition, the presence of stagnant red spots, extended pores of the skin, often filled with skin fat, as well as pathological scars. In the area of ​​blockage of the sebaceous glands, atheromes are formed (the coolest glands filled with a fat secret) or Miliums are white alcohols.

The main sign of the pedestal is the old scarmers, scars after healing purulent acne. They can have three forms:

  • depressed skin sections, snaps (or atrophic scars);
  • convex, bugister areas, often with sections of erythema (hypertrophic);
  • Dyshromy region (spotted skin surface, with plots of enhanced pigmentation).

Sometimes the formation of keloid scars are mistaken to the classification. This is the wrong approach. People with hereditary predisposition to the formation of coarse and poorly healing, disfiguring the appearance of scars infrequently suffer from acne, therefore the phenomena of the Package they have a rarity.

The most common option is pedestal - this is the appearance of atrophic scars. According to the classification of Jacob C.I., they may have a form of rounded, compass and square elements. This separation helps doctors to plan treatment and predict its results.

Round scars are the most shallow, the most favorable forecast for them. Square is somewhat deeper, but also well eliminated. The biggest problem is a slotted forms of Package, they look like a Latin letter "V", their bottom is deep in the dermis.

Types of pedestal

Types of skin damage from acne

Methods of getting rid of the pedestal

The intensity of the Package is directly related to the severity of acne. Therefore, work is important not only to eliminate the consequences, but also to prevent the emergence of new elements on the skin. It is necessary to fight with the acne itself, eliminating its main causes. If acne appears again and again, the forecast of treating the pedestal is doubtful, inflammation will generate new scars. Therefore, work with an experienced dermatologist-cosmetologist is required.

Most of the work on the restoration, leveling of the skin and the elimination of scars is conducted by a cosmetologist, but certain activities can be performed at home. Moreover, only an integrated approach will give the most maximum results.

What can be done at home

At home you need to help the skin to recover, it needs construction elements and full nutrition. For the regeneration of the skin and the formation of its structure, the flow of vitamins and minerals is necessary, protein as a source of amino acids for constructing collagen fibers and hyaluronic acid synthesis, which moisturizes and gives skin tone, smoothness.

In addition, omega-acids that participate in cell renewal form cell shells are important. It is important to correct a diet, to fix the treated products, food chemistry (dyes, preservatives, e-additives) from it, and give up bad habits.

For the prevention of new acne and improve tone, skin nutrition, pelvis healing and small scars will help pharmacy. You can use 1% salicylic alcohol or boric acid and wipe the skin twice a day. With the treatment of acne, the suppression of inflammation and the elimination of scars, the ointment of Levomecole is well coped. Many use bodhary powder, which is bred in water to Cashitz and apply to the affected area. But before applying all these means it is important to pre-consult with the doctor to prevent side effects and complications.

Supplement skin care selected by cosmetologist serum, leaving creams (day, night), as well as homemade peelings with fruit acids. They delicately exhaust the skin, eliminate dead cells, purify its surface.

Folk remedies are often going to move, for example, viscosity and chamomiles with anti-inflammatory and soothing, cleansing effects. They can be frozen and the resulting ice cubes wipe the skin, additionally increasing blood circulation and tone of capillaries.

You can also use masks with blue clay. Mask preparation recipe is very simple: three spoons of powder are bred in water to the casket, apply for a problem zone for 20 minutes and then thoroughly wash off with water.

What treatment techniques are used in a cosmetology clinic

Although home recipes and help in the fight against the pedestal, do not think that only the problems can be eliminated. Home methods act on the upper layers of skin and reduce only small defects.

From deep scars, pigmentation and irregularities will help to get rid of modern cosmetology procedures. But you should not wait for an instant result.

Treatment methods are selected individually and comprehensively. The harder the initial problem and the extensive of the defeat zone, the longer the treatment is.

To achieve maximum smoothness of the skin and even color of the face or eliminate defects on the body, you need a whole series of procedures, complemented by home care and carefully selected cosmetics. On average, the first notable results will be visible after 1-2 months with regular conducting all necessary medical events.

In the presence of bug, reduce the tone of the skin, pigment or stagnant stains to help come Peelings . Procedure options are very much: these can be mechanical peelings (compositions with herbs, small dense particles) and chemical (with retinol, glycolic, with resorcin or other compositions).

With mechanical peiling, the effect of purification and exfoliation is achieved due to the mechanical scraping by particles that are part of the top layer of the skin with the epithelium sprinkled cells.

In case of chemical peeling, the same effect is achieved due to the chemical caustion of the upper layer of the epidermis, which leads to its subsequent declining.

A beautician picks up peelings for your needs and strictly observes all the rules of their holding to achieve maximum effect and avoid side effects. On average, the first results are visible after 5-6 procedures.

More efficient analogue of peeling is Laser skin grinding . The doctor conducts a special laser installation procedure with a strictly specified wavelength, to influence the skin at the necessary depth, without damaging adjacent fabrics. The laser beam migrates the skin, the treated zones are actively extended, which allows you to stimulate the regeneration of new tissues, more even and smooth.

See the feedback of our patient about the laser grinding of the face:

Photothermolysis - a more advanced method of laser skin treatment. Rays affect not a solid field, but separate points - create a mesh on the processed zone. This is a fairly efficient, but less traumatic impact, the period of rehabilitation after such procedures is reduced.

In some cases, to combat imperfections of the skin used Dermabrasion . This is the use of aluminum oxide powder under pressure or a special rotating abrasive disk for mechanical skin grinding, removal from it the upper layers of the epidermis.

To eliminate atrophic scars and snaps, leather leveling can help Injection of phillers . They are introduced under the defect zone, create an additional volume, lifted by the depressed skin. The effect lasts up to 6-10 months (depending on the drug), then the injection is repeated.

Good results gives Mesotherapy With preparations that stimulate the synthesis of collagen and update of the epidermis. A series of micro enterprises with the introduction of hyaluronic acid, antioxidants, vitamin components are made to surface layers of the skin. A specific drug selects a beautician depending on the tasks and severity of skin defects.

Another method - Ozone therapy . This is a method of administering to the problem zone of a special oxygen mixture by a series of micro enterprises. The composition helps to saturate with oxygen tissue, stimulates blood circulation or lymph drainage, epithelium regeneration.

If no other techniques gave a pronounced effect, you can use the surgical removal of scars. The affected scar tissues are excised within the boundaries of healthy skin. The rehabilitation process is long, and the intervention itself can also leave the scars in the subsequent.

Treatment of pedestal in the clinic of Dr. Gruzdeva:

Chemical peelingChemical peeling

The clinic presents gentle surface peels: almond and glycolic.

Laser grindingLaser grinding

The effect of the laser beam on the problem areas of the surface layer of the dermis.

BiorevitalizationBiorevitalization

The non-operative method of rejuvenation of the face with hyaluronic acid based drugs.

MesotherapyMesotherapy

Injection method of introducing in the skin of "cocktails" based on vitamins, microelements, amino acids.

How to quickly clarify or disguise the pedestal

It is important to understand that the fight against the pedestal is a long process, it is necessary to gradually align the skin, stimulate the regeneration process, normalize blood circulation and metabolic processes in the epidermis and dermis.

Hide skin defects can primers, tonal bases and decorative cosmetics, but they do not improve, but only worsen the situation, clog pores, do not give the skin to breathe and create a nutrient medium for bacteria.

In one day or even in a week, hide traces from acne, eliminate scars and align the complexion, eliminating pigmentation, is impossible.

Home peelings will only improve the situation, but for deeper effects (chemical peelings, laser, mesotherapy) need time to rehabilitation (exfoliation, elimination of redness and skin irritation).

To eliminate pigmentation, whiten the skin, requires a series of procedures and properly selected cosmetics for subsequent care. Miraculous and safe funds that, when applying for one night, will eliminate all irregularities and flaws, simply does not exist.

How to prevent the appearance of acne and pedestrian

To prevent acne and the development of a pedestal, it is necessary to follow the rules for the care of the face and body. It is important to use the means for cleansing, skin care, selected by age and type of skin, apply them only for the purpose and according to the instructions.

It is impossible to put black dots or white pimples. For their speedy healing, special creams, serum or other accurate agents can be used. If the acne does not pass or their number is growing, you need a visit to the dermatologist.

To protect the skin from inflammation, try not to touch the face, do not rub it with your hands during the day, if you talk a lot on the phone, handle your gadget, as there are always many bacteria that fall on the skin.

Change towels more often or give up them in favor of disposable paper. Mandatory twice a day, wash your face, take a shower. To wash it, you need to choose soft cleansing agents. With a tendency to acne, a soft, delicate and well cleansing cosmetic is required. The usual soap or shower gel can be too aggressive.

Patient reviews of our clinic

Margarita Kovalevskaya

I express a lot of gratitude to Dr. Ovchinnikova Diana Valentinovna for the highest professionalism and the ability to make people happy! She helped me noticeably improve the appearance of the skin and completely transformed. I am pleased to recommend the clinic of Gruzalev and his wonderful doctor - Diana Valentinovna. Special thanks to administrators and nurses for a careful and polite attitude.

Maria

Good day! Came to this clinic on the recommendation of the girlfriend. At the reception, I was met with a smile and spent to the doctor. The doctor prescribed the procedure and said that they must be made in stages! Started from Dota ... The procedure is not pleasant, and the rehabilitation of 4 days I suffered courageously. But the skin after it is good !!! Then he made mesotherapy. I got up for 10 years and satisfied with my appearance! Therefore, I want to express my gratitude to the whole team of the clinic! I liked the attitude of all honey. personnel. Immediately it is clear that they love and know their job! Now I will come to you in the fall! Good luck to the meeting!

Verbickskaya I.G.

Diana Valentinovna is a specialist with a capital letter. I am very grateful to her professionally. Diana Valentinovna I made a photomagate procedure. It is something!!! Immediately felt freshness. I want to live! Keep it up!

Read all reviews about the clinic

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