It is generally recognized that the reasons for the appearance of moles on the body, which can be formed on any of its plot, lie in a benign local expansion of melanocytes - dendritic cells of the basal layer of epidermis.
These are the only cells that synthesize the protective skin from ultraviolet rays and the resulting skin color, hair and eye pigment melanin.
On the structure and properties of melanin is an UV filtering biopolymer, which is obtained during the multistage biochemical transformation of tyrosine α-amino acid; The pigment is deposited in the organellah melanocytes - melanosomes, and falls into the upper layers of our skin due to keratinocytes.
Accumulating in some one place, melanocytes form moles, and their average amount of one person ranges from 30 to 40.
Key reasons for the appearance of moles in adults and children
For the sake of clarifying the true cause of the appearance of moles by biologists and doctors, numerous biochemical and genetic studies will be conducted (and will be held).
At the same time, experts remind that the skin is an essential multifunctional organ, the laying of which occurs in the process of embryogenesis, that is, during the development of the human embryo.
Most of the moles appear during the first 20-30 years of human life, and, according to statistics, only one of every 100 babies at the time of appearance there are moles. And the reasons for the appearance of moles in a child, that is, congenital non-residents (in Latin Naevus means "the birthmark") is associated with a minor defect of embryonic development in the first twelve weeks of pregnancy.
The melanocytes generating the skin pigment is formed from the cells of the nerve ridge of the melanoblasts, which at the initial stages of embryogenesis are dissolved along the top (the dorsal) part of the nerve crest in various parts of the body (flat epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes, hair follicles, the tissue of the brain and the brain. In the basal layer of the epidermis, melanocytes are ripened to melanocytes capable of producing melanin. The defect is believed to be accelerated by melanocyte proliferation.
This means that their excess is formed, and "supernormative" melanocytes apply to the skin is not evenly, but they are collected together - nests, clusters, islands - in the uppermost layer of the skin and even protrude from it.
Recent research is a little clarify the picture. The fact is that part of melanocytes arise from the melanoblasts migrating ventral - along the lower surface of the nervous tube, and then along the nerves. These predecessor cells of melanocyte give rise to the peripheral nervous system and brainstabs of adrenal glands. Thus, they turn out to be in the shells of nerves and axons, among Schwann cells, and are able to produce melanocytes after birth.
There is a scientific evidence that melanocytes in moles are modified in the so-called Dermal Nevus Cells - skin nonsense cells. This version of melanocytes differs from the usual size, the volume of the cytoplasm and the absence of processes (dendrites). Usually, they are located on the border of the transition of the dermis in the epithelial tissue, and, depending on the degree of maturity, it can be additionally classified as epithelioid, lymphocytoid and neurobid. It is argue that non-zeal cells are able to migrate, penetrating the lymph nodes and even in the fork gland (thymus), where immunocompetent cells are formed and ripen - lymphocytes.
To date, it has been established that in 60% of cases, the causes of the emergence of moles in adults and children are heard. More than 125 different genes regulating pigmentation or directly or indirectly known. Many of these genes control the differentiation of melanocytes or affect the biiogenesis and the function of melanos, and also ensure participation in biochemical processes of pigmentation and proliferation of hormone epithelial cells, growth factors, transmembrane receptors (EPHR, EDNRB2, etc.), transcription factors (such as MITF, SOX10, PAX3, etc.). The interaction of the aggregate of the listed and determines the reasons for the emergence of new moles.
By the way, about hormones. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and in patients with diabetes often contribute to the formation of moles. And the hormonal reasons for the appearance of moles in a child and adolescent explain, first of all, the activity of hormones and biochemical growth factors (for example, SCF stem cell factor): after all, children grow, and the area of skin is constantly increasing. Also, melanocortins are very active in the growing organism - hormones, which purposefully stimulate the synthesis of melanin (they also affect the production of corticosteroids in the adrenal cortex and the activity of the lipid exchange in the cells of the adrenal tissue).
Under the action of solar radiation, the synthesis of melanin rises (and we see it when the tan appears). All this is the result of the activation of tyrosinease in melanocytes, which ensures the increase in skin protection against UV. Some scientists suggest that excessive solar irradiation can play a role in the formation of acquired moles. So far, the biomechanics of the interaction between the genetic structure and the general impact of ultraviolet rays is not found out. However, in favor of the fact that this is exactly the case, the practical complete absence of moles on the buttocks is evidenced ...
Causes of the appearance of moles on the neck, face and armpits
Virtually all interested in answers to three questions:
- Are there any special reasons for the appearance of moles on the face?
- What are the reasons for the appearance of moles on the neck?
- What are the reasons for the appearance of moles with armpits - in such an uncomfortable place, which, in general, is not exhibited in the sun?
We will try to answer them, relying on the fact that the clinical dermatology is already known to form the epidermal non-localization of the specified localization.
Melanocytes are located between basal keratinocytes in an exemplary ratio of one to ten and distribute melanin through their extended processes (dendrites), as well as by direct cell contacts. As you know, keratin skin cells in the upper layers of the epidermis are replaced by each other quickly and, rising up (to the horn layer of the skin) captured melanin - to form a barrier from ultraviolet rays.
At the same time, in various sections of the epidermis, the melanin content and the number of cells producing its cells are different: in the skin of the head (including on the face), as well as the neck and the hands of melanocytes are twice as much, rather than in other parts of our body. Obviously, this is due to the fact that these sites are much more often open, and they get the most sun rays.
Among the no-proven versions of the cause of the appearance of moles on the face, there is an assumption that increased metabolism in the cells of the epidermis, due to stressful effects of the temperature and humidity of the skin, and also constant stretching of the skin of the skin by facial mimic muscles .
In addition, there is an opinion that there may be causes for the appearance of moles on the neck associated with impaired formation and distribution of melanin at the epidermis areas directly above the nerves of the neck nervous plexus (see above - about the migration of melanoblasts in the development of the embryo). These are the branches of motor, skin and diaphragmal nerves, which are connected by loops and are located on the neck (rear, in front and on both sides).
But the reasons for the appearance of the moles with armpits, researchers tend to see in the face of the axillary depression of hair lows and glands - sweat and apokrinov. But the concrete mechanism for the formation of non-nonsense armpits has not yet been studied. Moreover, it remains unknown, as the flow of melanocytes in the epidermis is controlled, although, of course, the regulatory scheme of this process exists.
, , 
Causes of the appearance of pink and red moles
The most likely cause of the appearance of red moles is that the "body" of the nevus can be not only melanocytes, but also cells of epidermal connective tissue, apparent fibers, as well as vascular elements. The so-called vascular neules (Nevus Vascularis) are manifested by various blurred swollen or spots on the skin due to capillar hypertrophy - the growth of blood vessels in the skin.
In addition, there may be a link in a disadvantage of blood coagulation factors and vitamin K, which leads to increased bleeding during damage to the walls of the skin capillaries, partially in the formation.
According to dermatologists, red moles are characteristic of such diagnoses as autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis or systemic red lupus.
Similar and reasons for the appearance of red convex moles. At the same time, their "bulge" (as in the case of brown moles) is the result of the fact that melanocytes are often located significantly higher than the dermoapidermal transition and are localized in the upper layer of the epidermis, including in the grainy zone and the coronary layer.
Also read - Red Mountain or Angome
The causes of the appearance of pink and red moles do not exclude the influence of the composition of the composition of the melanin produced. Melanin can be either brown-black (Eumeline) or reddish-orange (feomelain). In the latter case, especially in red-haired and natural blondes - Moles are often light beige or pink.
Causes of the appearance of hanging moles
The fact that the reason for the appearance of the mole on the leg, as well as the reasons for the appearance of hanging moles on the neck are thoroughly studied, speak too much. Although the study of the etiology of this variety of epidermal nevids is given a lot of attention.
Thus, the association of a melanocyar nevus with eccrine sweat glands was revealed, which is expressed not only in the capture of the body of the mole of the gland itself (which can be in the center of the mole), but also in the exit of non-native cells in the form of a node outside - through the eccrine ducts.
In other cases, the feature of infiltration leads to a linear structure of the distribution of intradermal non-zeal cells. Going beyond the limits of the dermoeidermal border and the packer layer of the skin, the group of such cells penetrates the surface, expanding the part of the epidermis between the collagen fibers. Moreover, intradermal nonsense cells can form a pigmented dome-shaped or papillomatous papul (up to 1 cm in diameter), equipped with a leg. It is also possible a molluscular form with a wide base, with coloring from light brown and black to whitewood or pink-red.
Hanging moles can form anywhere, but their "favorite places" is the area of the neck, the axillary depressures and the skin in the crotch area.
In the middle of the last decade, the Royal College researchers (King's College) were examined in London 1200 unidentic female twins aged 18 to 79 years old and found that those who had a greater number of moles on the body possessed and stronger bones, that is, They reduce the likelihood of osteoporosis. In addition, the elderly women with more than 60 moles, the skin was less wrinkled, and they looked younger than their years ... It turned out that people with a large number of moles chromosomes have unusually long telomers - the terminal areas of the DNA polymerase, which extends the period of active replication And moves many age processes in the body.
And dermatologists advise - regardless of time and the causes of the appearance of moles - with any changes to the epidermal nonsense to contact the specialists, since the risk of developing skin cancer associated with the presence of moles is quite high.
5 answers to important questions about moles on our body
© Hanna Postova / Unsplash
Author RBC style
June 26 2020.
What are the moles? Is those who have a lot of them in the risk zone? What kind of moles are dangerous and can I remove them? Professor-Oncologist responded to the most common questions about the nevists.
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Zavka Fedroy Surgery and Oncology Medical Institute RUDN; Head of the oncoosurgical separation of skin tumors and soft tissues of the MCNC. A.S. Loginova; Deputy Chairman of the National Academy of Dermatologists and Oncologists
Mountain (Nevius) - pigmented spots or nodules consisting of recipheses of melanocytes (cells containing a pigment melanin). Moles, or, how to correctly call them, nevi, have everyone: someone else, someone has less. They can be smooth or bug, different shapes and colors. Moles, like constellation, are scattered on the body by groups of several pieces or are found one. They change, appear and disappear with age. In some cases, moles can be transformed into melanoma - a non-epithelial malignant tumor.
The most dangerous moles are big, convex, dark color?
The size, bulge and intensity of the pygmentation of the Moles does not always indicate the risk of melanoma. Danger can also represent small flat moles with uneven broken boundaries or inhomogeneous color (for example, one side is light, and the other is almost black). Therefore, when you find large nonsense or any changes to the mole better show a dermatologist. Melanoma can occur in the dark, and in bright moles, so they need to examine the dermatologist and punishable education. Konstantin Titov
: "There are dangerous moles, the predecessors of melanoma: gigantic congenital nonsense, dysplastic nevies or border neules. People with them should periodically turn to the dermatologist, passing a dermatoscopy, research using a photoForder. This means that the doctor takes pictures of the whole body and is a map of the mole or "skin passport". Once every six months or a year, a person must undergo this examination again, if any neules will increase, grow or change. Such an approach will allow you to detect the problem in time and carry out a more detailed study. "
A large number of moles on the body can lead to skin cancer?
There is no consensus about how much moles should be considered safe, no. Until recently, the threshold, in which the probability of the development of melanoma arose was considered 50 or more moles. Today it is already about 100 or more. These are the so-called moles without an account, and a person with such a number of nonsense is included in the risk group. However, such people are a bit.
In 75-80% of cases, melanoma occurs spontaneously. So a large number of nonsense in itself is not considered a manifestation of melanoma and does not indicate a mandatory susceptibility of the skin to cancer. But people who have many moles should be most closely related to them. Konstantin Titov
: "Large serious studies have shown that melanoma in 75-80% arises not on the background of the moles. And at 20-25%, it can be transformed against the background of certain nonsense. That is, communication with moles is not as straight and absolute. 80% really occurs spontaneously, on unchanged skin, but on that plot, which was previously subjected to burns. A 20% melanoma is transformed against the background of the so-called melanomascular non-love. "
Is it possible to remove moles?
It is impossible to delete moles yourself, as well as seeking advice in the beauty salon. What kind of moles and which way you can remove, only a dermatologist defines. Why? Any unprofessional removal of non-discovery can lead to complications. To date, there are several removal methods. For some moles, it is quite suitable for instant cutting with a current of high frequency, and a scalpel will need to remove others. In special cases, specialists apply a laser or liquid nitrogen.
New moles on the body is an alarm signal?
The appearance of moles on the body is a natural process for many people. In some, they arise spontaneously in a short time, others have throughout life. There are also congenital moles that manifest themselves in the first months after birth.
In 75-80% of cases, melanoma occurs spontaneously. So a large number of nonsense in itself is not considered a manifestation of melanoma and does not indicate a mandatory susceptibility of the skin to cancer. But people who have many moles should be most closely related to them. As a rule, moles themselves are quite safe. Therefore, if they do not deliver discomfort, their color, size or form do not change, you should not touch them.
: "90% of the population of the planet has moles. In most, they manifest themselves in the pubertal period, in childhood, during life, but this is not a reason to immediately run to the doctor. Only if you notice that some of them begins to grow yourself more actively, changes the color, shape, edge, and there are changes other than others, it is worth seeing a doctor. "
How to determine dangerous moles?
There is a special ABCDE method. It was designed for independent inspection of the body for identifying strange moles or neoplasms. Latin letters in the abbreviation indicate a step-by-step inspection of moles in five parameters:
- Checking Moles on the ABCDE method:
- A (asymmetry) - the asymmetry of the parties of the mole (one half is not symmetric another);
- B (Border Irregularity) is an uneven region of the mole;
- C (Color) - unequal color at different parts of the mole;
- D (Diameter) Mines -Diameter more than 6 mm (use a ruler for inspection);
E (Elevation and / or Evolution) - Molenity variability (if Molenia has changed the last time color and / or size).
The presence of two or more parameters from this list should alert, and in this case it is better to consult a doctor. The norm is when the color, size and shape of the mole do not change.
In 75-80% of cases, melanoma occurs spontaneously. So a large number of nonsense in itself is not considered a manifestation of melanoma and does not indicate a mandatory susceptibility of the skin to cancer. But people who have many moles should be most closely related to them. Unlike internal organs, the skin is always in sight, this is the largest body of our body. Therefore, any changes can be seen independently. Medical inspection to those who are in the risk area (has a countless number of moles), it is recommended to pass regularly: once every six months a year.
: "To reduce the risk of developing melanoma, it is important to avoid sunburn, use protective equipment, avoid long stay in the sun in summer at lunchtime."You can learn more about moles and skin health using the test game.
Nevus- This is a benign education on the skin, which can be congenital either appeared at a certain stage of life. In ordinary life, such tumors are more often called
or rivable spots. From the point of view of medicine, all these formations have a similar nature and occurrence mechanisms.In most cases, neutres do not require serious treatment and do not affect the quality of human life. Nevertheless, some kinds of moles doctors refer to prejudice states. In other words, such benign formations with some probability may in the future develop into a cancer tumor. This is the main danger of nonsense.
- Interesting facts about moles
- Most moles are congenital formations, but due to the small size of the whole organism they are indistinguishable to a certain age.
- Moles can change painting throughout a person's life.
- Often, women are not only in the skin, but also on the mucous membranes. In men, such localization occurs significantly less frequently. Moles on the skin are encountered approximately with the same frequency among the representatives of both sexes.
- It is believed that certain types of nonsense are present more than 90% of the population, but sometimes people themselves are not suspected of it.
- Some species of moles can achieve very large sizes, delivering people serious inconvenience, not to mention a cosmetic defect. The history of medicine describes benign skin formations of more than 30 cm and weighing a few kilograms.
- In the Middle Ages in some European countries, people with a large number of moles were suspected of witchcraft. Especially it concerned people with large rimpheam spots. Such entities were considered to be noted by the devil.
- Many peoples believe that a person with a lot of moles will be especially happy in life.
People with light hair and blond eyes are genetically susceptible to higher risk of malignant rebirth of non-type non-type and development of skin cancer.
Causes of NestusNetures are the growth of skin cells of a certain species that look like a thief or seal on the surface of the skin. Often, Molenia contain a significant amount of melanin pigment, which gives them a darker color. Melanin is made by cells with melanocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation. The neoplasm does not necessarily consist of melanocytes. It can prevail completely different cells. Most often it simply contains a pigment that produces these cells. For melanocytes, ultraviolet radiation is a stimulating factor, but not only it causes the generation of pigment. The presence of a melanotropic hormone is also important, which is produced by a pituitary.
Iron at the base of the brain
). Thus, in the process of staining of non-units, several organism systems are involved immediately.As for the immediate formation of non-uniforms, there is an uncontrolled cell division. At a certain stage of development, it is redundant, which leads to the appearance of a neoplasm. Unlike the skin cancer, the nevi is usually not prone to rapid growth. Most of the types of moles and birthplace spots are congenital and grow in parallel with the body. Thus, after the completion of the growth of the whole organism, at 20 - 25 years old stops or the growth of the formations themselves stops.
- It is believed that the emergence of non-discovery is a consequence of the impact of certain factors:
- local development defects;
- hereditary factors;
- ultraviolet radiation;
- hormonal factors;
Viruses and bacterial infections.
Local Development Defects
This factor applies, first of all, congenital moles. In some cases, they appear due to violations of skin cell division in the late stages of fetal development. Such defects at birth are usually extremely small and remain unnoticed. Due to this, the formation is noticed only at 2 - 3 years of the child's life, when the skin surface increases significantly. It is believed that such origin has more than 60% of all moles.
Hereditary factorsIt's no secret that sometimes moles and birthmarks are inherited. It was noticed many centuries ago and served as evidence of blood kinship before testing
DNA. In fact, hereditary factors work as follows. Certain tumor formations or pigment stains are encoded by a chain of genes in the DNA molecule. When transferring a genetic material, this chain is transmitted from
chromosomefrom parents to children. After birth, the body develops according to the algorithm embedded in its genetic material. Mountain appears in the process of deciphering and interpretation of genes as the body develops. Such formations are usually benign. At the same time, the chance of transferring moles is approximately 50%, provided that the parent has an hereditary education. Emerged during life (
) Netures are not inherited, since they are not programmed in the sequence of genes.
Ultraviolet radiation leads to stimulation of melanocytes in the basal layer of the skin. For more intensive pigment generation, the body begins to produce more melanotropic hormone. If the reinforced ultraviolet radiation continues to enter the skin, the number of melanocytes will increase as compensation. In other words, instead of a tan, which is an adequate protective reaction to radiation, a pathological reaction begins, which is the growth of skin cells. Netures formed by such a mechanism appear in adults and are acquired. Especially high sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in women after 30 years. Solarium in this case also refers to risk factors.
InjuriesMechanical skin damage (
Insect bites, scratches, wounds
) From the point of view of some specialists can play a role in the development of acquired Nevi. In this case, we are talking about an inflammatory process that affects various layers of skin. Due to inflammation in the tissues, a large number of biologically active substances are produced, which can stimulate cell growth. This factor of the appearance of moles relates to secondary and rare.
Hormonal factorsThe participation of hormones in the process of formation of moles was noticed when observing patients. Many researchers noted that the acquired moles appeared in adolescents during puberty. In addition, in rare cases, men appear in women during
And in patients with serious endocrine disorders. In all these cases, physiological or pathological hormonal restructuring occurs, affecting the work of the pituitary. Of the greatest role in the development of nonsense, of course, melanotropic hormone, but also other hormones can affect the appearance of neoplasms.Moles that appeared against the background of hormonal rearrangements are rarely subjected to malignant reincarnation. Most often they do not reach large sizes (
less than 0.5 cm
) and can spontaneously disappear without treatment a few months after the appearance.
Viruses and bacterial infectionsCurrently, the possibility of the emergence of non-non-viral or bacterial infections affecting the skin is considered. The reason for the appearance of this theory was a description of several such cases in different countries. The mechanism of the development of moles at the same time is similar to those in injuries. The leading place occupies an active inflammatory process. In the case of
Human papilloma virusThe neoplasms will have another nature. From the point of view of dermatology and histology (
on fabric structure) they will classify as
, not as nurses.Based on the above factors and mechanisms for the development of moles, you can highlight risk groups. They include people who have more often acquired by the neutuses throughout their lives. In addition, skin neoplasms are more prone to malignant reincarnation.
- From the point of view of the development of skin cancer, as well as the emergence and growth of moles, the following risk groups are distinguished:
- People encountered with increased ultraviolet radiation in workplaces; People, regular vacation in southern latitudes ( in equatorial countries
- People involved in the chemical industry or other industries using carcinogenic substances;
- People, for a long time on treatment with hormonal drugs;
- people with reduced immunity or chronic endocrine disorders; People with a large number of congenital non-innoves ( in equatorial countries
- Erected the risk of new formations and their transition to cancer Relatives of patients who have histologically confirmed skin cancer ( melanoma
These categories of people should be especially attentive to their health. It is recommended to undergo a prophylactic examination at the doctor more often than the rest.
Types of NeviovThe units of non-discontinued views are the subject of broad discussions among dermatologists and oncologists. The fact is that there is a fairly large number of criteria for which you can classify neoplasms on the skin. In addition, the species themselves are described a lot. As a result of this uniform universal classification, which would be used in all medical directions and in all countries does not exist.
- From the point of view of the mechanism of the appearance of non-units, they are usually divided into two large groups: Congenital moles
- . Congenital moles are less at risk of rebirth in melanoma, but still belong to specialists to predry states. When stopping the growth of the body, the growth of education is usually stopped. It is customary to attribute those moles that were first noticed by their parents or a doctor under 3 years old inclusive. It is believed that up to this point in the formation was so small that they simply did not find at birth. Acquired moles . Acquired moles appear throughout the life of a person under the influence of the factors mentioned above. According to statistics, they are more susceptible to risk of malignancy ( malignant rebirth
), rather than congenital education. It is possible to explain this by the fact that the very appearance of non-discovery is a consequence of the impact of external or internal factors. Their further influence may contribute to the transformation of the neoplasm in cancer.However, innate, and acquired forms of moles can be similar in structure. The greatest value in medicine has histological classification of non-units. It takes into account the main features of each type of tumor and makes it possible to predict the course of the disease with a large proportion. Of all the variety of types of moles, which exist more than 50, only about 10 species are most often found. They are conventionally divided into melanomonya and melan-hazard neules. The first almost never undergo malignant rebirth, so their removal pursues mainly cosmetics. The second is the increased risk of cancer development, therefore it is recommended to remove them in the absence of other contraindications.
- There are the following types of melanomone-hazardous nonsense:
- intradermal pigment nonsense;
- papillomatous neust;
- Mongolian stain;
Intradermal pigment neousMost often, this type of moles appears in adolescence. At first, the formation is localized inside the skin, not speaking over its surface (
Hence the name of the type, "Derma" in Greek - leather). Dimensions usually do not exceed a few millimeters. Such moles can change a little color and form as the body grows and its aging. However, to progression and sharp increase in old age (
How does this happen to some other types) They are not prone. Malignation (
malignant rebirth) It comes less than 20% of cases and only in the presence of additional relaxing factors.
- Intradermal neules are localized mainly in the following parts of the body:
- Neck and throat skin; Skin folds at the base of the limbs ( in equatorial countries
- in a groin or axillary region under the breast ( in equatorial countries
- among women leather torso or limbs ( melanoma
This type of moles usually quickly rushes into the eyes of patients due to an unpleasant appearance. Often people turn not only to the dermatologist, but also to the oncologist, immediately suspecting a malignant tumor. Necess is a pronounced elevation above the skin surface, sharply different in color and texture. At first glance, it has a granular surface of brownish color, but can be pinkish. Molenia is soft and painless to the touch. Any concern besides a cosmetic defect is usually not observed.
The preferential localization of such formations is the moral part of the head, but they can also occur on the skin of the body or limbs. If there is a hair follicle on the surface of the mole, then the hair is sometimes different in color from other hair. Education may slowly increase throughout the human life, but malignant rebirth is rare. Due to the large external similarity with some kinds of malignant melanoma, it is recommended that the nevus biopsy is recommended as quickly as possible and to determine its type of cellular composition.
Galonevus is often called Nettone's nonsense. It is most often acquired and appears in people with a strongly reduced immunity, impaired hormonal status or severe autoimmune diseases. With this type of moles, there is a view of an autoimmune reaction, when the body struggles with defective cells. This reaction is expressed weakly and does not lead to inflammation or other acute manifestations. Nevertheless, it imposes a characteristic imprint on the appearance of this education.Galonevus is a round or oval mole, which slightly protrudes over the skin surface. The characteristic difference of it is a whin of a pale skin who surrounds its base. The size of the nevus itself is a few millimeters, and the width of the depigmented area around it is to a half-cave meter (
more often 1 - 2 mm
). This type of moles on the skin of the torso or limbs is localized, but it is also extremely rare on the face, soles, footsteps or mucous membranes. Single formations are atypical, and when one formation of a similar type, others should be sought. Most often doctors do not recommend removing halonum, but prescribe a large number of diagnostic procedures. These moles can be manifestations of more serious diseases that require timely qualified treatment. The neoplasms themselves often pass and without treatment in a few months or years after the appearance. The transformation of the netton nevus in skin cancer is very rare.
The Mongolian stain is the form of a godded spot in newborns, which may be present in a less pronounced form in adults. In fact, it is an option of a genetically determined pigment violation, which makes it possible to attribute it to nevists. The name this type was obtained due to the fact that there are such stains from almost 90% of newborn mongols. True, in a few years they disappear in 19 children from 20. Representatives of other nationalities, Mongolian spots are also found, but they are less pronounced and the prevalence usually does not exceed 0.5%.Mongolian stain is usually localized in the region of the sacrum or on the skin of the buttocks. The average size of formations is a few centimeters, but sometimes they reach 10 - 15 cm in diameter. Even if such a stain remains in adulthood, it rarely becomes the cause of melanoma. Due to the inconspicuous localization and minimal cosmetic defect (
in adult spots are pale and not very different from the surrounding skin
), Special treatment is usually not prescribed.
This type of moles is one of the most common in medical and cosmetology practices. Such education can be both congenital and acquired during life. At the same time, there is no great dependence on age or floor. Like other non-non-nonsense, the peak falls on periods of hormonal rearrangements, but described quite a few cases, when such moles developed in old age.
Fibroepithelial neust is usually round or close to it. Sizes and localization can be diverse. To cosmetologists, for example, patients with formations near the half-bentimeter in diameter located on the skin of the face are usually addressed. Pigmentation of such moles is moderate, so the color is more often pinky or reddish. To the touch, the formation is soft but elastic. Palpation pain in patients does not occur.Since the tumor contains a significant number of connective tissue cells, its removal does not represent large difficulties. On the other hand, malignant rebirth of fibroepithelial nevids is also rare. The growth of education at a certain stage slows down and is usually not accelerated until the end of life. The problem is that such moles are not inclined to spontaneous disappearance without medical care.
- There are the following types of melanchassic nonuses:
- Blue Necess;
- Border Pigment Necess;
- Giant pigment neust;
- Nesus OTA;
Blue NestusBlue Nevel (
also blue or yadasson-tiche) It is an option for a precancerous state, but generally relates to benign formations. It is a cluster of melanocytes in the thickness of the skin, which is more often appearing throughout life. Typically, such moles are single, but described multiple options (
up to 4 - 5
) formations. Blue Neus is called due to the fact that its cells are very actively producing melanin. In practice, color may be different. There are moles of this type of dark blue, dark purple, gray or black colors.
Mountain most often protrudes over the skin, but may sometimes feel in the form of an intradermal node. There is no clearly pronounced statistical localization. With a close inspection, you can note clear boundaries and some skin tension. Mountain almost never exceeds 1 cm in diameter. Hair growth is not characteristic.Despite the fact that in medical practice, the rebirth of the blue nevus in Melanoma is not so often (
more often after its injury or unsuccessful deletion attempt
), Patients with this type of moles should regularly undergo a prophylactic examination.
Border Pignet Nestus
Most often, this type of moles is congenital. Only at 15 - 20% of cases, it appears in the first few years of life. There are also data on the development of the border nevus in adolescence, but this option is extremely rare.
In the absence of provoking factors, education is growing and increases in proportion to the growth of the body. On average, its sizes reaches 0.8 - 1.2 cm. With a strengthened growth of the mole, it can achieve several centimeters in diameter. It is usually not highly towers above the skin surface. The color is determined by the high melanin content and can be brown, purple or close to black. In some cases, concentric rings are noted. In this case, the color changes strips from the periphery to the center. However, this sign is inconsistent and found far from all border nevids.There are no particularly characteristic localization of such formations. Nevertheless, this type of moles is one of the few, found on the skin of the palms and stop. When palpation, the consistency is not very different from neighboring areas of the skin. The seal may indicate the beginning of the malignancy, which is noticed quite often (
Especially after injury or intensive tanning
Giant Pigment NestusThis type of moles is difficult to confuse with other skin neoplasms. First, it is always congenital and noticeable, as a rule, from the first days of the child's life. Secondly, increasing as the body grows, the Molenia reaches large sizes than other skin formations. On average, they vary from 3 to 7 cm in diameter, but sometimes cover a whole anatomical area (
Neck, a significant part of the body, cheek
). The moles of this type of such type were described up to 35-40 cm. The cosmetic defect is aggravated by the fact that the formation strongly performs above the surface of the skin, representing a massive tumor.
The color of the giant pigment nevus is usually gray or dark brown. With large sizes, it can be different in different places. There is no regularity at the same time, and the stains of various shades are chaotic. Typical for such formations is the presence of deep cracks, furrows and small warts on the surface. It is often observed and enhanced hair growth from follicles on the surface of the mole, which is not so often occurring at other types.Treatment of such nonuses is appointed usually for cosmetics. However, there are not so rare cases of malignization (
up to 10% of cases). This is associated with the fact that the formation of such large sizes is easier and is more often injured. Treatment is recommended surgical with a wide excision of tumor tissue and skin transplantation (
Especially after injury or intensive tanning
at large sizes of the mole
NEWS NEWS is a few group of neuro-skin syndromes, when a certain role also plays a certain role in the development of a neoplasm. This type of mole is located exclusively on the face, in the field of cheekbones or the edge of the orbit. It is a stain with a high melanin content. It is less likely to occur when several merging formations are located in one area.Typical for this type of moles are changes in the mucous membrane of the eye, lips, or even the sky, if neave has achieved quite large size. The color is most often black and blue. Visually sometimes rush pigment stains in the sclera of the eye (
) or in the area of the cornea.To suspect the Neva Ot, by collecting a detailed history. This education is in most cases congenital (
described rather rare cases of appearance in adolescence
). It has a clear genetic predisposition and meets only among Asian peoples or their descendants. At the same time, the most inherent in this type of moles to the Japanese and Mongols. Less often, he meets the Chinese and representatives of the peoples of Central Asia.Malignant rebirth of such pigment stains is not often confirmed by many authoritative studies. This is associated with intense effects of ultraviolet radiation. Patients with Nesus OTA are difficult to protect against him due to relatively large size of education (
) And its position.
Displastic NevaThis education is about half of the cases is congenital. Family cases were repeatedly observed when the moles of this type were diagnosed in two or more members of one family (
Congenital dysplastic syndrome). However, they believe that their spontaneous appearance during puberty is possible. To preliminary diagnosis, it is necessary to specify whether the patient has relatives with a diagnosed malignant melanoma. The formation themselves rarely exceed half acantimeter in diameter. In the patient, as a rule, several dysplastic nonlaisses are observed, but options with solitary formation are also possible.
- On the body, this type of moles is located in the following places:
- top of the back;
- lower limbs; Rear surface of the hips ( in equatorial countries
- to Copchik
- Inguinal folds and leather around external genital organs; Other location ( melanoma
observed noticeably lessSuch moles can have a variety of color - from light brown to severe black (
There are even reddish and pink education). It is often observed and uneven coloring when the edges of the neoplasm of the same color, and the center - the other. The surface of the nevus is flat, relatively smooth. Confirm the diagnosis helps a biopsy on which the cell location is typical for this species. Forecast for patients with this neoplasm (
especially with the acquired version
) The most unfavorable. Without removal or appropriate care, they are developing at a malignant melanoma in more than 90% of cases at a certain stage.
What do notes look like?In most cases, it is not too difficult to detect the neusions of any kind. Their owners themselves are well aware of neoplasms. Problems usually appear if the moles are not saturated with melanin and do not differ in color from the surrounding skin. In addition, there are often unnoticed neoplasms of small sizes or in atypical places (
Inguinal folds, axillary depressions, etc.
). In all these cases, the patient may not know about his problem.
With moles of ordinary sizes there are difficulties with recognition of the type of neoplasm. Even experienced doctors sometimes cannot correctly classify the disease without microscopic tissue analysis. However, each of the types has some more or less specific external signs.
|Visual distinction of some types of nonsense||View of Netus||Photo|
|Brief description and characteristic features|
|Mean monasurely nevys||Intradermal pigment neous Mysteries are small, usually pigmented ( Painted|
|), are located in the thickness of the skin, but they can sometimes perform a little over its surface. At the same time, the pattern of the skin is preserved, and the Nevi himself, as it were, pushes the top layer of the skin below.||Papillomatous Nestus|
|A distinctive feature is a rough surface with numerous irregularities, grooves and warts. It is often localized in the scalp.||Galonevus.|
|Characteristic is the presence of a depigmented crown around the mole. The center is almost always rising above the surrounding area of the skin.||Mongolian stain|
|Pigmentation can be very intense in newborns and barely noticeable in adults. The stain reaches large sizes, but does not rise above the skin surface.||Fibroepithelial Nestus|
|Most often, the rounded shape with relatively smooth and right edges. It is not necessarily pigmented, can be pinkish or light brown.|
|Meano-hazard nevys||Blue Nestus|
|Almost always in the pigmentation of this nevus, bluish or bluish shades are guessed. Mole of small size and is often a single formation.||Border Pignet Nestus|
|The appearance of this type of moles can vary greatly. A specific feature is a concentric change in the color circles from the periphery to the formation center, but such a color is observed quite rarely.||Giant Pigment Nestus|
|Easily distinguish, due to the large size, uneven surface, a significant elevation over the surrounding skin. On the surface of such moles often observed enhanced hair growth.||Nesus Ot.|
|Located in the field of the eye, the upper jaw or the zick bone. Parallel, pigment stains can appear on the mucous membranes of the eye, nose, oral cavity.||Displastic Neva|
Can be very different in appearance from one patient to another. Most often have an irregular shape, uneven edges and inhomogeneous surface color.
The above visual features play a major role in the diagnosis of non-nonsense. Nevertheless, even experienced doctors with great experience can be mistaken in the classification of moles in appearance. The table lists only the most frequent forms of non-love. In practice, they have to distinguish not only among themselves, but also with many other formations of the skin. In this regard, the visual assessment is important to patients to know when it is worth contacting the doctor and what about.
Diagnosis of NeviovThe most important task in the diagnosis of non-discontinuities is clearly distinct with malignant skin neoplasms (
First of all, with melanoma). The latter requires urgent qualified assistance, as it is about the life of the patient. In this regard, the doctor at the reception will try to exclude malignant education and only after that it will be done by determining the type of nevus. The latter is important to compile a proper prediction of the disease, informing the patient and the mode of prophylactic inspections.
- The following types of surveys may be applied in the diagnosis of non-units: Anamnese collection ( in equatorial countries
- Patient poll
- Visual data;
- Indication of phosphorus isotope;
Patient poll and properly specified questions are a very important source of diagnostic information. This is especially felt in the diagnosis of skin neoplasms, when other rapid research methods do not provide sufficient data.
From the collection of anamnesis begins the diagnosis of any specialist. In the case of non-notes, attention should be paid to a number of issues that may somewhat clarify the situation. First, it is necessary to clarify the family history. The doctor establishes whether anyone from the blood relatives of the moles or the birthmarks. Here, the question of the cases of diagnosed melanoma in the family should be called. Positive family history can clarify the situation and facilitate the classification of the neoplasm.Secondly, the doctor will definitely ask about the presence of external and internal factors that could predict to the emergence of non-neust and development of melanoma. We are talking about working place conditions (
Supercooling, exposure to high temperatures, contact with chemicals or irradiation
) And about the presence of chronic pathologies. If you set exactly which factors caused the emergence of a nevus, it will be easier to raise the correct diagnosis and start the right treatment.
Visual dataAs noted above, for each of the types of non-units, certain visual signs are characterized. As a result, the doctor will try as much as possible to explore the neoplasm itself. Often, a thorough inspection of not only the affected zone may be needed to obtain sufficient information, but also the entire surface of the body. As noted above, for some types of moles, localization is characterized even on mucous membranes. In this regard, at the first reception at a dermatologist or an oncologist, with suspected Melanoma, an inspection of the oral cavity may be needed, as well as a rectal and vaginal inspection.
- Detected neoplasms The doctor assesses the following criteria:
- number of moles;
- the size;
- time of appearance;
Changes since the last inspection.The last item is especially important. Sometimes benign tumors in appearance are very similar to melanoma. If a favorable forecast has been confirmed after the biopsy, then in the future, the diagnostic significance will not have the above criteria, but the changes that occur with the tumor.
- On the basis of these objective inspection, benign and malignant education can be distinguished as follows:
- The formation of more than 1 cm in diameter is more often a slope to malignancy;
- The sharpening of the edges of the mole, the loss of the right shape and its exploration to the parties indicates a gradual malignant rebirth;
- The appearance of pain or itching in the nevus region, which before that did not cause inconvenience; The appearance of small nodules ( most often black and dense
- ) on the surface of the mole; Fast seal, or, on the contrary, softening the nevus ( in equatorial countries
- not on the background of therapy Spot bleeding on the surface of the harmful spot or moles ( in equatorial countries
- including the allocation of Sukrovitsy with the formation of a crust
- Drying and peeling of the nevus surface; Hair follicle hair loss ( in equatorial countries
- If so were on the surface of the mole gradual color change ( in equatorial countries
- especially if in the end the color has become uneven
- Redness of the skin and signs of inflammation around the mole;
The appearance of small point formations around the nevus.
The emergence of any of the above symptoms may be the first sign of the malignant transformation of the mole in melanoma. Patients themselves may notice these signs, which must necessarily lead them to a consultation to the doctor. The doctor, when discovering such signs on inspection, can recommend to remove education without further analyzes and research.
Dermatoscopy is a thorough inspection of neoplasms on the surface of the patient's skin. It is carried out using a special device that increases the image of several tens of times. Due to this, a specialist appears the opportunity to notice the minimum changes on the surface of the nevus. Nowadays, this examination method is considered to be very effective in relation to the early diagnosis of melanoma. The main advantages are quite high informativeness with complete painlessness and relatively low cost of the procedure.
Inspection can last from 3 - 5 to 15 - 20 minutes and more depending on the number of non-units. The method does not have contraindications, as it is non-contact, that is, on the patient, it does not affect the mechanical method or any physical emissions.
Most often, dermatoscopy is prescribed at the first examination of the patient and during repeated planned surveys. It does not allow you to confirm or eliminate the diagnosis of 100%, but can tell a doctor what kind of research will be the most informative in the future.
Indication of phosphorus isotope
This method is highly sensitive, as it is based on the accumulation of radioactive phosphorus malignant tumor. Phosphorus normally takes part in the process of cell division. With melanoma, the division occurs very intensively, because of which the need for phosphorus increases. The test is used isotope, as it is easy to detect when scanning. In patients with melanoma labeled phosphorus accumulates more intensively in the field of non-units. This indicates a reinforced cell division and allows you to confirm the diagnosis with a high degree of probability.
EchographyEchography involves the study of soft tissues at the base and around the nevus to determine its exact dimensions. Some formations (
) Intensively germinate precisely in the thickness of the skin and even subcutaneous fatty fiber. Of course, the echography is prescribed only with newists sufficiently large sizes. Most ultrasound devices simply do not catch flat moles in a size of several millimeters. In addition, the accuracy of the study will be quite low if the density of the nevus tissue is the same as the density of the surrounding tissues. In this case, the border of the neoplasm is very difficult. As a result, the echography is appointed as a preparation for the operation to remove major non-units and does not have a wide practical application in the diagnostic process.
In the process of diagnosing melanoma, X-ray study may also be needed. At the same time, the doctor must have access to special equipment, since standard X-ray devices will not give the necessary information. The snapshot is done with the increased sensitivity of the apparatus in various projections and with an increase of 5 - 10 times. This method allows you to see and evaluate the structure of the tissues of the nevus itself. With malignant reincarnation, it will be inhomogeneous with a large number of small cavities or seals. The method practically does not have contraindications, since the dose of radiation that the patient will receive during the study is extremely small.
ThermometryThermometry is a local measurement of skin temperature using a special machine. It is believed that the growth of any tumor formations (
both benign and malignant
) accompanied by a slight increase in temperature. This is explained by the active metabolism, which always accompanies the process of cell division. During the local thermometry, the temperature is compared on the surface of the skin in healthy places and on the surface of the neoplasms. On average, with benign nevists, the difference will be fluent within 1 degrees. With the malignant degeneration of the tumor and the development of melanoma, the difference in local temperature indicators can be up to 2 - 2.5 degrees.
This research method is painless, rapid and fairly accurate. Many doctors are trying with a regular observation of the patient to assign local thermometry again to be able to compare changes in time indicators. Directly when conducting the procedure, pay attention to the comfortable conditions of the external environment, as they can greatly distort the results of the study.
BiopsyThe biopsy is the most reliable way to determine the type of care and identify the first signs of malignant rebirth in melanoma. The accuracy of the method with a properly performed procedure reaches almost 100%. Biopsy implies taking a piece of fabric fragment from a neoplasm. From the resulting sample using staining make a special substance, convenient for microscopic examination. After that, the doctor by type of cells, their location and form makes conclusion about the nature of this neoplasm.
- There are two main types of biopsy: Puncture biopsy . This procedure involves taking fabric fragments using a special needle. Cells are taken point and in limited quantity, therefore the information content of the method is limited. Nevertheless, in most cases there is enough enough to make a diagnosis and give the patient a correct forecast for the development of the disease. The procedure is usually done under local anesthesia ( melanoma
- anesthesia Total Excision biopsy
. This method can be attributed to both the diagnostic and therapeutic measures. The fact is that it removes the neoplasm for the subsequent histological research. The accuracy of this method is highest, because the doctor has enough material at its disposal. This diagnostic method is applicable only with respect to surface nevists of up to 0.5 - 1 cm. Removal is usually produced under general anesthesia. The purpose of the study of the mole after its removal is to discover signs of rebirth in melanoma. If they are found, the patient is prescribed a course of chemotherapy, since the tumor may appear again.The biopsy is resorted to the final stage of the diagnostic process, when the remaining research methods have already been carried out, and the final diagnosis is never supplied. Histological analysis is required before radical operations (
Large excision of fabrics, amputation
) Regarding malignant skin neoplasms.
Alternative to biopsy is the cytological study of the nevus imprint. At the same time, the doctor gets the material by scraping the cells from the surface of the mole or simply pressing the slide to form. This method is particularly informative if there are any selection or ulceration on the surface. Cytological analysis of the nevus imprint is less informative than biopsy, but does not require anesthesia and more simple in execution.Diagnostic research as
,general blood analysis
Analysis of urine
In nevists are usually not prescribed, since specific changes are not observed in this pathology. Sometimes these analyzes are carried out before a biopsy or an operation to remove the neoplasm. In this regard, the purpose of the study is to assess the work of the internal organs and systems of the body. Sometimes they help to identify contraindications to surgery and some chronic diseases that may affect the course of the disease.
If the nurses appeared against the background of chronic diseases or infections, they may need re-analyzes of blood, urine, as well as bacteriological research. They are necessary for the proper treatment of the main pathology, as the nevuses in this case are considered as a symptom and do not require urgent treatment.
Treatment of nonsenseNeous treatment is starting after all diagnostic procedures (
Preferably with biopsy fabric). Drug treatment is practically no applied, since it does not have a pronounced effect with reducing neoplasms. The course of treatment with various drugs is prescribed if the moles appeared against the background of other pathologies. Treatment of nonsense themselves, as a rule, assumes their removal.
- There are the following methods of treatment of nonsense:
- Surgical removal of the mole;
- treatment by folk remedies;
Preventive measures when refusing to remove.
Surgical removal of molesTreatment of non-units in most cases implies the removal of the neoplasm. It can be appointed by medical indications or at the request of the patient with a pronounced cosmetic defect. Medical indications are considered signs of malignant rebirth of the mole. Removal of neoplasms in most cases does not represent serious problems. This type of operations are engaged not only by dermatologists, but many cosmetology cabinets. The main requirement before intervening is the elimination of melanoma or other types of malignant formations. In this case, not only the removal of the tumor will be required, but also an intensive course of treatment after that. With suspected melanoma, dermatologists and cosmetologists should not be taken for operation without consulting an oncologist.
- The removal of the mole can be produced in the following ways: Excision of fabrics . The excision of tissues is made using an ordinary scalpel. The surgeon removes the resulting pigment cells and some skin area around ( up to several centimeters ). The operation is carried out under local or general anesthesia, depending on the localization of the mole and its size. After removing the nevus on the site, the scar may form ( Even when imposing an invisible intradermal seam
- ). All this led to the fact that in recent years, the surgical removal of benign non-units is almost not used. Cryodestruction
- . Cryodestruction is a frost of tissues. At the same time, cells cease to share and die. Frozen fabric plot is removed without damaging the skin under it. The plus of this method is its painlessness and the lack of scars after the procedure. However, during cryodestruction, it is high enough chance to remove the nevus completely, which can lead to its re-development. Therefore, it is prescribed mainly with small moles located superficially. Laser Surgery . Laser surgery is perhaps the most common way to remove non-units. With the help of a laser from the fabric, a fluid is evaporated, which leads to cells of the cells. This procedure is usually performed without anesthesia. During removal, the patient may feel easy tingling or heat. The advantage of the procedure is that it can be successfully used with a large number of non-notes. After removal, there are no scars or scars. Only moles of significant sizes can represent the problem ( more than 1 - 2 cm in diameter ). Evaporation of such a number of fabric takes longer, and sometimes it cannot be done to the end ( part of the nevus remains and can again grow out
- ). In such cases, it is better to resort to the usual excision of the mole. Electro-generation
. Electro-generation is a process, in many respects similar to the laser evaporation of the tissue. Cells are destroyed under the local exposure of the electric current. This method is also used mainly to remove small-dimensional formations.
Folk remediesGiven the fact that the forecast for most moles is favorable, it is possible to try to remove them with the help of folk medicine. Before that, you need to visit a dermatologist or oncologist to exclude the prejudice states or malignant rebirth of non-states. In these cases, the disregard of traditional medicine can greatly aggravate the course of the disease and even create a threat to the patient's life.
- The following folk methods of removal of moles are exist: Lyapis pencil
- . Lapis is an alternative name for silver nitrate. This substance is already many hundred years used in medicine for migration and disinfection of wounds and other skin damage. In traditional medicine, this remedy is not very common, as there are more efficient silver preparations with a similar effect. Netures should be caught with Lyapis 1 - 2 times a day until there will be signs of reducing the neoplasm. Since the concentrated silver nitrate is used to remove moles, it is not necessary to use for a long time. If after 2 - 3 weeks after the start of the Region's procedures does not decrease, it means that other methods of treatment should be found. Cleptele juice
- . Cleptela juice also has a disinfectant and an ignition property that can help in the fight against certain types of non-love. This agent is used several times a day, causing a thin layer on the neoplasm surface. Since the juice of Cellular does not have sufficient viscosity, it can quickly wear or evaporate, it is sometimes mixed with vaseline oil. As a result, the mixture is obtained, which will be most effective in combating moles. Acetic Essence
- . Network treatment with acetic essence is a more efficient means than Lapis or Cellular. It can eliminate the neoplasm during the week. The effect of essence is based on cacular tissue caustic, which is 70 - 80% of the substance. Cutting can be painful. It should not be done more often than once a day. After the procedure, the plugged place must be tied up with a clean bandage to avoid infection. The ignition of acetic essence is fraught with residual defects after removing the mole. Cannon oil
- . Hemp oil contributes to the evaporation of the tissue, at the expense of which you can try to remove the nevi. Lubrication is necessary 3 - 4 times a day for several weeks. There is no direct destruction of the fabric at the same time, therefore the procedure is completely painless. In practice, the effectiveness of this method is approximately 3-5% depending on the size and shape of the moles. Lemon juice
. The effect of lemon juice is also based on an acid formation by acid formation. However, the concentration of acid is not high enough to cause direct destruction of tissues. It is necessary to lubricate the birthmark at least 4 - 5 times a day. In some cases, neust may disappear within a few weeks.The above folk methods, unfortunately, help on average only 10 - 15% of cases. In addition, the use of concentrated acids for migation of monesia is associated with injury to fabrics, pain and risk of infection in the rink. In this regard, the independent removal of moles by folk remedies most doctors do not approve. Cutting the neoplasms with sharp objects (
) It is strictly prohibited due to the high risk of complications. Nowadays, the best way out is to appeal to a qualified specialist who will help to quickly and qualitatively solve the problem.
Preventive measures when refusing to removeAs already explained above, some types of non-prejudice states that are threatened in the future malignant rebirth. To avoid this, it is necessary to observe a number of preventive measures that reduce the likelihood of cancer.
- Prevention of skin cancer reduces to the following rules: Limited exposure to direct sunlight.
- At the same time, the intensity of ultraviolet radiation, which contributes to cell mutations. Ordinary sunburns are played by a certain role after a long tan. Such destructive impact should be avoided even healthy people without skin neoplasms. Patients with moles should not only not sunbathe for a long time, but also additionally protect the neuro to adhesive plane or cloth. Fighting dry skin.
- Dry skin also predisposes to malignant cellular changes in Nevi tissue. In this regard, it is recommended to use special moisturizing creams. To select a qualitative means, you can contact a dermatologist or cosmetologist. Timely treatment of skin diseases. There are a large number of dermatological diseases that can contribute to malignant reincarnation of non-units. Such an action sometimes has skin manifestations of infectious or systemic pathologies. As a result, patients with moles needed when the first symptoms appear ( rash, steepness, itching, peeling
- ) To apply for a consultation to the doctor. Protection against mechanical injuries.
- If the mole is located on palm, foot, neck, or elsewhere exposed to a frequent mechanical effect, it is recommended to remove this neoplasm. Regular traumatization and, as a result, inflammation, contribute to the development of skin cancer. If it is impossible or reluctance to remove Nesus, at least to protect it using the plaster. Protection against the effects of carcinogens. A number of chemical compounds used in everyday life may have a mutagenic effect ( Provocate cancer development ). If there are moles, you need to limit skin contact with such connections. If possible, it is recommended to avoid other types of contact of the body with carcinogens ( Inhalation, swallowing
- ). Smoking in this case can also be attributed to the risk factor. It is proved that tobacco combustion products also contain some carcinogenic substances. Regular advice from a doctor.
Compliance with all of the above rules does not exempt the patient from the need to regularly undergo a prophylactic examination by a dermatologist or oncologist. The recommended consultation frequency is once a year. If necessary, a specialist notifies the patient about the need for surveys.
Why are moles appear
- The formation of moles on his body is observed throughout his life. Often these formations appear completely imperceptibly and are not a reason for concern. The reasons for the appearance of non-units have different nature. Worth the question of why new moles appear, it is worth analyzing congenital and acquired factors.
- Hereditary nevies duplicate skin formations on the body of the nearest relative. Their appearance is due to the information laid down in the Genetic DNA code.
- Pigment stains provoked by the impact of ultraviolet are the most dangerous and unpredictable in the dynamics of development.
- Injuries and negative environmental impact are also the strongest leather pigmentation provocateurs. Doctors suggest that the appearance of moles on the body in some cases can be explained by insect bite, exposure to X-rays, some viruses, radiation. Any factor that breaks the body's balance is able to launch the process of concentration of melanocytes in a specific area, followed by way out on the skin surface.
The aggressive behavior of melanin contributes hormonal bursts and overall violations of the hormonal background. The greatest number of non-love appears in the adolescence, during pregnancy, in people with diseases of adrenal glands, thyroid gland, other endocrine diseases.
A person can have many moles on the body, but never happens two of the same. Everyone differ from each other in shape, size, color. Each pigment education has its own life cycle. So, in most cases, the first nurses appear at an early age, finally forming by 8-10 years.
The appearance of pigment spots and their localization directly depend on the concentration and location of melanocytes. Than them are more, and the location is closer to the skin surface, the darker and the total mole.
What are the dangerous nevi?
Most people live life with benign formations that never worry them and do not pose a threat to health. The emergence of new nonsense is often accompanied by the disappearance of previously formed. A healthy body controls and regulates melanin production. And yet, pigmented spots, completely harmless and "calm" over the years, can be potentially dangerous. Over time, under the influence of various factors, they can be reborn in melanoma - a malignant tumor, which develops from melanocytes.
Why do black moles appear?
The color of dermal formations depends on the concentration of melanin in them; What it is more - the squadd of Mole. However, it is not necessary to scare intensive staining. The darkening does not always indicate the development of oncological pathology. Each case is unique. But also to let any changes earlier than a stable mole worth. If black moles on the body appear, it is not worth postponing a visit to the doctor. Full or partial blades of non-love contribute:
Ultra-violet rays. Excessive stay in the sun - the right path to the mercy of the moles and the formation of new black tumors. Especially one should not abuse the tan, if many moles appeared on the body. Increased concentration of melanin is a natural reaction of the body to potentially hazardous radiation.
Hormones. Hormonal failures adversely affect the body as a whole, violate the functioning of individual organs and systems. The skin is no exception. Most Moles appear on the human body during puberty, reception of hormonal drugs, in women - during pregnancy, after an abortion.
Any actions aimed at frequent or periodic trauma of non-residents in most cases lead to their darkening and increase the risk of rebirth.
Prevention and rebirth of moles
The appearance of moles is a large-controlled process. However, you can prevent excess skin pigmentation if:
Reduce stay in the sun, especially during its increased activity;
Wipe the skin dry, sunbathing on the beach;
Use high-quality sunscreen with SPF from 30 and higher.
Prevent injury to nonsense;
Lead a healthy lifestyle, to relax full, balanced to eat, abandon bad habits;
Observe moles, and in case of suspicion of rebirth, consult a doctor.
- What kind of moles need to get rid of?
- The decision to remove dermal education should be made with a qualified physician. The specialist diagnoses the problem, will offer an optimal solution to its solution. Plan a visit to the dermatologist standing if there are moles on the body, which are often traumatized or located in vulnerable places. The consultation of a specialist in relation to the formations, which possess the following signs:
- Asymmetry - change of the outlines, uneven edges, uneven bulges;
- Uneven color - mole began to darken, poured with blood, skin pattern disappeared from the surface;
Resize - the larger Neva, the greater the chances of reborn. An increase in the size of a previously stable education is to be worried about;
Discomfort - itching, pain, hair loss on the surface of the mole, peeling or wetting - alarms.
Increased attention also requires skin neoplasms, which appeared in adulthood or attended injuries.
Any suspicion of rebirth serve reason to make an appointment with a doctor. Early diagnosis increases the chances of successful treatment.
Ways to remove moles An attempt to get rid of education independently, using folk remedies or guided by the advice of acquaintances, can lead to a catastrophe. Delete Moles follows in specialized medical institutions, after consulting a specialist in the field of dermatology or oncology and, if necessary, comprehensive diagnosis. There are several ways to remove moles: Surgically - resection is carried out under anesthesia (local or general, depending on the location of education, size, individual wishes of the patient). By ignition - high or extremely low temperatures destroy the cells, acting locally and actually painlessly. In some cases, the procedure is carried out under local anesthesia. Laser beam - Progressive highly efficient method excluding relapses. Removing moles with a laser passes painlessly, quickly, safely.
- a small-acting contactless method, implies the impact on the nevi high-frequency radio waves. Among the few contraindications to the procedure also include the presence of a patient with a pacemaker.
- There is a lot of pharmacy tools that you can remove moles, for example, Stefalin, super trust and a number of others. However, this method is the most dangerous, and the result of the effects of ointments, gels or solutions is unpredictable. What method of deletion to choose? The laser method is the most efficient and effective way to get rid of the moles from the available and practiced modern medicine. The latest laser technologies taken into armared by progressive clinics make it possible to carry out the procedure as accurately as possible by impacting skin formation. The key advantages of laser removal of moles are: Painlessness. The procedure can be carried out without anesthesia. At the request of the patient, the use of painkillers of local action is permissible. Short rehabilitation period. Cell regeneration after the exposure of the laser occurs quickly. For several days enough to restore the skin. A small scope at the site of a remote neoplary disappears itself after 5-7 days. Low trauma. The laser affects skin education very precisely, excluding damage to the surrounding tissues. High efficiency. The emergence of a new mole in place remotely excluded. Lack of scars. Laser technique allows you to remove moles without a trace. No scars or stains remain. Becability. Simultaneously with the removal of pathological cells, the laser plays capillaries, preventing bleeding both during the procedure and after it.
. The removal of one mole of a small size occupies just a few seconds. During one session, you can get rid of several non-diameters and localization.
More and more clinics is mastering a popular, efficient laser technique. The procedure can be passed by contacting the medical center or cosmetology office, practicing the removal of moles. In the clinic of aesthetic medicine "Galaxy" (Moscow), removal of nonsense occurs on the latest equipment.
How is the procedure?
The laser technique does not exclude the possibility of histological examination of pathological cells after their removal, but analyzes that exclude malignancy of neoplasms must be made in advance. Based on the data obtained, the doctor recommends the patient preparatory procedures.
Immediately before resection, Molenia is processed by an antiseptic and anesthetic. After removal, the place of exposure is causing to eliminate infection and speed up the healing process.
You can learn more about the ways of removing non-uniforms and other neoplasms on the skin at consultation by the doctor of the beautician of the Galaxy Aesthetic Medicine Clinic (Moscow).
- Moles (Netures) by nature are benign pigmented formations that are distinguished by a wide variety of forms and colors.
- Despite the fact that most people have a sufficiently large number of similar epidermal structures on the face and body, often the appearance of a nevus becomes an unpleasant surprise, which makes its owner think about why moles appear. We will try to figure out what is a pigmented neoplasm on the skin and how moles on the body and face appear.
- What is moles?
- In order to decide that it becomes an etiotropic factor in the formation of the mole, it is necessary to understand first of all, which is a non-Nesus at the physiological level. In fact, the mole consists of epidermis cells that contain an excessive amount of the natural pigment of melanin responding to the body for the color parameters of the hair, eye and color of the skin.
- The accumulation of pigmented particles can be located at any level of the dermis, which will directly affect the shape and structure of the nevus. Depending on this factor, the following forms of pigmented formations are distinguished:
Angular; Acute, etc.
In addition, the color of such an epidermal structure can be different. Most often there are brown, black, red, bodily, pink and blue moles, but there are no restrictions in this regard and depending on the number and type of melanin, the neubs can have any color.
Moles on the body: Causes of appearance There are several factors to become a starting mechanism for the formation of a birthmark on the body, each of which is characteristic of a particular period in a person's life. Dermatologists argue that the absolute majority of people in humans appear as a result of the following conditions:
Impact of ultraviolet radiation. Under the influence of the intense sun or ultraviolet rays of a solarium, the skin of a person begins to actively produce a pigment - melanin, which accumulates in cells, causes such a phenomenon like a tan. When an excess of such irradiation is observed, melanin accumulation in cells of a certain zone can occur. The accumulation of pigmented cellular structures and will manifest itself on the human body as an epidermal mole.
This factor most often provokes the formation of small, nodular non-discovery, which often form colonies consisting of several similar structures located on one body section. Doctors say that the majority of moles formed due to intensive solar radiation are melanomastic, that is, prone to oncological reincarnation and development of skin cancer; Hormonal imbalance.
Being natural regulators that control the flow of all physiological processes in the body, hormones can provoke the formation or disappearance of non-non-units. It has been proven that hormones of pituitary glands have a particularly strong influence on the process of forming moles on the body, which are also capable of changing the color, shapes and size of pigmented structures. Determining why moles appear during pregnancy, puberty or reception of hormonal drugs, it is particularly close attention to payments to the hormonal mechanism of their education; Hereditary predisposition.
Based on the results of many studies, relative to the true causes of the appearance of moles on the body, it was possible to establish the role of the genetic component, in the process of forming pigmented nonuses. In this case, heredity affects not only the amount and nature of pigmented formations, but may affect the localization of the structure. Thus, if the mother or father has a fairly large epidermal education at a certain place of the body or face, then the likelihood is that such a structure manifest itself from their child; Viral agents.
This factor is especially relevant if it is necessary to determine why hanging moles appear on the body. The fact is that, about half of all cases of the formation of hanging nevids are associated with the penetration of human papillomava virus (HPV), which provokes the division of epidermal cells, forming a convex cake formation;
Injury to epidermal structures or other moles.
Answering the question why moles on the body appear in an adult, the correct answer often becomes often mechanical damage to the skin, which can be accompanied by a pigment output and its cluster in a certain epidermal zone. In addition, doctors noticed that when driving or injured a long-generated mole, in the field of nearby fabrics, the formation of new non-units;
Disorders of the cardiovascular system, like the morphological changes in large and small vessels, can cause why red moles appear on the body. The color features of such non-love are associated with this feature of their etiology.
Sometimes it is not possible to identify the unequivocal cause of the formation of a nevus on the human skin. In this case, it should be especially closely related to the external characteristics of such a structure having an idiopathic origin.
Why began to appear moles on the body?
Many patients note that the emergence of multiple moles on the body often to accounted for a certain life period. So it should be understood that the newborn baby has no nonsense on the body, while the first manifestations of pigmented skin structures may appear on its skin. As a child, the emergence of new moles is a normal reaction of epidermal structures on active growth of the child and environmental impact.
The next peak of the intensification of the process of forming non-diverse types of different types and sizes to occur for a period of puberty, which is quite explained from the point of view of hormonal perestroika, which is characteristic of this time interval. Most often, the process of constant formation of new pigmented spots is completed at the age of about 24 years, after which the appearance of moles is rather an exception than the rule. The representatives of the beautiful floor are often faced with the formation of hanging moles during the nipping of the child, breastfeeding or entering the body of a climacteric restructuring of the body.
Regardless of the cause of the formation of a pigmented section of the epidermis, attention should be paid to any changes that occurs with non-neules localized on a body or face. The fact is that the answer to the question, as to why the moles are growing, why nevel itchs or hurts, often becomes the likelihood of its malignant transformation, which can end for a patient with such a dangerous state as skin cancer. That is why, noticing any aesthetic or physiological changes in pigmented structures, immediately refer to a specialist to a dermatologist or an oncologist, which will determine the need to remove such a mole, and will also produce a diagnostic study of its tissues.
The Neomed clinic offers its customers the services of highly qualified specialists, ready to diagnose and remove moles, regardless of their nature, size and nature of localization, using modern high-tech hardware of the medical center.
- These are frequent, usually innocuous formations on the skin, which are developing due to excessive growth of melanocytes or pigment cells.
Moles, or Netures, are usually formed in childhood and adolescence, but adults can also appear new moles.
Most moles are benign, but the emergence of new moles or sudden changes of the existing moles in adults can be a sign of melanoma.
- Melanoma is a type of skin cancer. According to the American Cancer Society (American Cancer Society), only 1% of all cases of skin cancer account for melanoma, but it becomes the cause of most deaths from skin cancer.
- Why new moles appear
- The new mole appears when melanocytes, cells producing pigment in the skin of a person breed or divide, forming characteristic moles that on the surface of the skin. Melanocytes contain a pigment that ensures the typical color of the mole.
- Moles can be benign or malignant. Malignant moles, for example, melanoma, appear as a result of genetic mutations. The exact reason for the formation of benign moles remains unknown.
Possible causes of the appearance of a new mole include the following:
Impact of ultraviolet radiation
bright skinGenetic factors
Diseases accompanied by damage to the immune system
Types of Moles
Moles are divided into different subtypes depending on the properties. The following types of moles are distinguished: Ordinary mole
May appear at birth or later in childhood. These moles are usually formed in those areas of the skin that are exposed to sunlight.
An ordinary mole most often has a round symmetrical shape, a smooth surface and clear edges. Conventional moles are relatively small, their diameter is less than 5 millimeters (mm).
These moles are rarely reborn in cancer
. Nevertheless, according to National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health, Nih), people with more than 50 ordinary moles can be increased by the risk of melanoma.
Congenital moles or birthplace spots are already present on the skin at the moment of birth. Congenital moles can differ significantly in size, and some of them are quite large.
These moles are usually benign, but the presence of congenital moles is especially very large, can somewhat increase the risk of melanoma.
According to one study, the risk of melanoma during the life of people with very large congenital moles ranges from 10% to 15%. However, these indicators differ in different studies.
Atypical moles, or dysplastic nevys, can appear anywhere on the body and are usually larger than other types of moles.
Their color and texture may vary, and usually they have uneven edges without a clear border with surrounding skin (blurred).
These moles are usually multicolored, for example, it is possible to highlight areas of pink, red, brown and dark brown.
According to the American oncological society, some atypical moles may be ill-time. However, most atypical moles do not turn into melanoma.
- Since atypical moles can have some similar features with melanoma, people must visit the dermatologist to make sure there are no problems.
- Nestus SPTI
- This rare type of mole is very similar to melanoma, but it is not malignant. Nesus Spitz usually develops in the ceiling of children and young people under the age of 20.
Sometimes doctors are difficult to distinguish between Nesus Spitz and Melanoma, and they can recommend removal as a preventive measure.
Nevus Spitz grow rapidly, and its sizes can be from a millimeter to about a centimeter in diameter. Other spitz nevus characteristics include the following:
Round, symmetric form
- smooth surface
- Star pigment lines
- Alarming signs
Most moles are benign, but people should consult a doctor if they notice the emergence of a new mole or recent changes of already existing moles.
- The alarming features to pay attention to the inspection of the already existing moles:
- Color, Forms or Size Changes
- To identify potential melanters, you can use the ABCDE Rule of American Oncology Society. ABCDE is decoded as follows:
A - asymmetry (asymmetry). One half of the moles look different than another half.
- Border. Mountain has an irregular shape, uneven or blurred edges.
- C - color (Color). Mountain contains a mixture of several colors.
- D - Diameter (Diameter). Mountain is greater than 6 mm in diameter.
E - Evolving (Evolving). The form, size or color of the moles changes.
Other symptoms to pay attention to:
"Highlighting" moles, including white halo around her
Bleeding or discomfort in the field of mole
Mountain, which is very different from other moles on the body
Some dermatologists can recommend people every month to photograph areas with a large number of moles, such as the back, to make it easier to notice changes.
It is also important to inspect the nails, feet and brushes of hand, since melanomas may occur in these areas.